Advertisement

Ultrasound of the Ankle and Foot

Chapter
  • 1.6k Downloads

Abstract

The sonographic anatomy of the ankle and foot is complex, but learning this region will reward the rheumatologist with enhanced knowledge of foot anatomy and pathology. Pathologic processes that can be imaged to augment the history and physical examination include inflammatory arthritis, tenosynovitis, tendinosis, enthesopathy, bone erosions, osteophyte formation, and microcrystalline deposition.

Keywords

Ankle Foot Ultrasound Arthritis Rheumatoid Gout Chondrocalcinosis Tendinopathy Tendinitis Spondyloarthropathies Osteoarthritis Arthritis Psoriatic Morton’s neuroma 

References

  1. 1.
    McAlindon T, Kissin E, Nazarian L, Ranganath V, Prakash S, Taylor M, et al. American College of Rheumatology report on reasonable use of musculoskeletal ultrasonography in rheumatology clinical practice. Arthritis Care Res. 2012;64(11):1625–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D’Agostino MA. Impact of ultrasound imaging on local corticosteroid injections of symptomatic ankle, hind-, and mid-foot in chronic inflammatory diseases. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;53(2):284–92.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brown AK, Roberts TE, Wakefield RJ, Karim Z, Hensor E, O’Connor PJ, et al. The challenges of integrating ultrasonography into routine rheumatology practice: addressing the needs of clinical rheumatologists. Rheumatology. 2007;46:821–9.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Backhaus M, Burmester GR, Gerber T, Grassi W, Machold KP, Swen WA, et al. Guidelines for musculoskeletal ultrasound in rheumatology. Ann Rheum Dis. 2001;60(7):641–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bianchi S, Martinoli C, Gaignot C, Gautard RD, Meyer JM. Ultrasound of the ankle: anatomy of the tendons, bursae, and ligaments. Seminars Musc Rad. 2005;9(3):243–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schmidt WA, Schmidt H, Schicke B, Gromnica-Ihle E. Standard reference values for musculoskeletal ultrasonography. Ann Rheum Dis. 2004;63(8):988–94.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rawool NM, Nazarian LN. Ultrasound of the ankle and foot. Semin Ultrasound CT MRI. 2000;21(3):275–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kotnis N, Harish S, Popowich T. Medial ankle and heel: ultrasound evaluation and sonographic appearances of conditions causing symptoms. Semin Ultrasound CT MRI. 2011;32:125–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Harris CA, Peduto AJ. Achilles tendon imaging. Australas Radiol. 2006;50:513–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wakefield RJ, Balint PV, Szkudlarek M, Filippucci E, Backhaus M, D’Agostino MA, et al. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology. J Rheumatol. 2005;32(12):2485–7.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Premkumar A, Perry MB, Dwyer AJ, Gerber LH, Johnson D, Venzon D, et al. Sonography and MR imaging of posterior tibial tendinopathy. AJR. 2002;178:223–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Naredo E, D’Agnostino MA, Wakefield RJ, Moller I, Balint PV, Filippucci E, et al. Reliability of a consensus-based ultrasound score for tenosynovitis in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2013;72:1328–34.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    McGonagle D, Wakefield RJ, Tan AL, D’Agostino MA, Toumi H, Hayashi K, et al. Distinct topography of erosion and new bone formation in achilles tendon enthesitis. Arth Rheum. 2008;58(9):2694–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Falsetti P, Frediani B, Acciai C, Baldi F, Filippou G, Prada EP, et al. Ultrasonographic study of achilles tendon and plantar fascia in chondrocalcinosis. J Rheumatol. 2004;31:2242–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    D’Agostino MA, Aegerter P, Bechara K, Salliot C, Olivia J, Chimenti MS, et al. How to diagnose spondyloarthritis early? Accuracy of peripheral enthesitis detection by power Doppler ultrasonography. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70:1433–40.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Feydy A, Lavie-Brion MC, Gossec L, Lavie F, Guerini H, Nguyen C, et al. Comparative study of MRI and power Doppler ultrasonography of the heel in patients with spondyloarthritis with and without heel pain and in controls. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012;71:498–503.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sabir N, Demirlenk S, Yagci B, Karabulut N, Cubukcu S. Clinical utility of sonography in diagnosing plantar fasciitis. J Ultrasound Med. 2005;24:1041–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Akfirata M, Senb C, Gunes T. Ultrasonographic appearance of the plantar fasciitis. J Clin Imag. 2003;27:353–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tsai WC, Chiu MF, Wang CL, Tang FT, Wong MK. Ultrasound evaluation of plantar fasciitis. Scand J Rheumatol. 2000;29:255.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wakefield RJ, Freeston JE, O’Connor P, Reay N, Budgen A, Hensor EMA, et al. The optimal assessment of the rheumatoid arthritis hindfoot: a comparative study of clinical examination, ultrasound and high field MRI. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008;67(12):1678–82.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ganguly A et al. Lumps and bumps around the foot and ankle: an assessment of frequency with ultrasound and MRI. Skeletal Radiol. 2013;42:1051.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Thiele RG, Schlesinger N. Diagnosis of gout by ultrasound. Rheumatology. 2007;46(7):1116–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Delle Sedie A, Riente L, Iagnocco A, Filippucci E, Meenagh G, Grassi W, et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist X. Ultrasound imaging in crystal-related arthropathies. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2007;25(4):513–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Thiele RG. Role of ultrasound and other advanced imaging in the diagnosis and management of gout. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2011;13(2):146–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Thiele RG, Schlesinger N. Ultrasonography shows disappearance of monosodium urate crystal deposition on hyaline cartilage after sustained normouricemia is achieved. Rheumatol Int. 2010;30(4):495–503.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Keen HI, Redmond A, Wakefield RJ, Freeston J, Grainger AJ, Hensor EMA, et al. An ultrasonographic study of metatarsophalangeal joint pain: synovitis, structural pathology and their relationship to symptoms and function. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70:2140–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Szkudlarek M, Narvestad E, Klarlund M, Court-Payen M, Thomsen HS, Østergaard M. Ultrasonography of the metatarsophalangeal joints in rheumatoid arthritis. Arth Rheum. 2004;50(7):2103–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zayat AS1, Ellegaard K, Conaghan PG, Terslev L, Hensor EM, Freeston JE, Emery P. Wakefield RJ. The specificity of ultrasound-detected bone erosions for rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. Published Online First: April 30, 2014. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-204864 Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Edwards C, Milner S. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of second toe interphalangeal joint: methods of imaging. Foot Ankle Surg. 2010;16:e34–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sharp RJ, Wade CM, Hennessy MS, Saxby TS. The role of MRI and ultrasound imaging in Morton’s neuroma and the effect of size of lesion on symptoms. J Bone Joint Surg. 2003;85-B:999–1005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Torrian M, Kattapuram S. Dynamic sonography of the forefoot: the sonographic mulder sign. Am J Roentgen. 2003;180:1121–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rheumatology Svc, MCHE-MDRSan Antonio Military Medical CenterFort Sam HoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations