The Dynamic Interplay Between Active and Passive Knee Stability: Implications for Management of the High ACL Injury Risk Athlete

  • Ravi K. Grandhi
  • Dai Sugimoto
  • Mike Posthumus
  • Daniel Schneider
  • Gregory D. MyerEmail author


Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a common problem affecting athletes. Individuals with certain active (movement, training, and growth) and passive (genetics, hormones, anatomy) factors are at increased risk of injury. There is dynamic interplay between the active and passive factors that is directly attributable to an increased risk for ACL injury. Oftentimes, those individuals with both passive and active factors are at the highest risk for ACL injury. Identifying these individuals and providing additional training (i.e., neuromuscular training) have the best potential to mitigate the injury risk.


ACL rupture Ligament laxity Anatomical variation and growth anomalies Trunk and ligament relationship Mechanical mechanism to lateral trunk motion and knee load Quadriceps training Injury prevention Neuromuscular training 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ravi K. Grandhi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dai Sugimoto
    • 3
    • 4
  • Mike Posthumus
    • 5
  • Daniel Schneider
    • 2
    • 6
  • Gregory D. Myer
    • 6
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.College of Medicine, University of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  3. 3.Division of Sports Medicine, Department of OrthopaedicsBoston Children’s HospitalBostonUSA
  4. 4.The Micheli Center for Sports Injury PreventionWalthamUSA
  5. 5.Division of Exercise Science and Sports MedicineThe University of Cape TownCape TownSouth Africa
  6. 6.Division of Sports MedicineCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA

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