Advertisement

ACL and Extra-articular Tenodesis

  • Benjamin V. Herman
  • Timothy D. Lording
  • Alan GetgoodEmail author
Chapter
  • 1.1k Downloads

Abstract

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is one of the most common orthopedic surgical procedures performed. There have been concerns with the inability of an ACLR to reliably restore normal tibial rotation. Various iterations of the lateral extra-articular tenodesis (LET) have been used in an attempt to address anterolateral laxity in an ACL-deficient knee. Initial results with isolated LET were poor in terms of patient satisfaction and subjective clinical testing using a pivot shift test. There is a renewed interest in using LET as an adjunct procedure to a conventional ACLR, as the body of literature looking at a combination procedure has provided more promising results. Our current clinical indications for using LET to augment an ACLR include significant anterolateral laxity (pivot shift grade 2 or greater), young patient age (<20 years), genu recurvatum >10°, or participation in a high-risk pivoting sport.

Keywords

Lateral extra-articular tenodesis Anterolateral laxity Biomechanics 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful for research funding for the STAbiLiTY study has been provided through the Multicenter Grant competition from the International Society of Arthroscopy, Knee Surgery, and Orthopedic Sports Medicine (ISAKOS) and the Orthopedic Research and Education Foundation (OREF).

Dr. Getgood also thanks Dr. David Dejour and Dr. Peter Verdonk for demonstrating their respective techniques of lateral extra-articular tenodesis.

References

  1. 1.
    Ardern CL, Webster KE, Taylor NF, Feller JA (2011) Return to sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the state of play. Br J Sports Med 45:596–606CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boden BP, Sheehan FT, Torg JS, Hewett TE (2010) Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: mechanisms and risk factors. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 18:520–527CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Claes S, Vereecke E, Maes M, Victor J, Verdonk P, Bellemans J (2013) Anatomy of the anterolateral ligament of the knee. J Anat 223:321–328CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vieira EL, Vieira EÁ, da Silva R, dos Santos Berlfein PA, Abdalla RJ, Cohen M (2007) An anatomic study of the iliotibial tract. Arthrosc J Arthrosc Relat Surg 23:269–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vincent JP, Magnussen RA, Gezmez F, Uguen A, Jacobi M, Weppe F et al (2012) The anterolateral ligament of the human knee: An anatomic and histologic study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 20:147–152CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Caterine S, Litchfield R, Johnson M, Chronik B, Getgood A (2014) A cadaveric study of the anterolateral ligament: re-introducing the lateral capsular ligament. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. [Internet]. [cited 2015 Mar 5];1–10. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24929656
  7. 7.
    Hughston JC, Andrews JR, Cross MJ, Moschi A (1976) Classification of knee ligament instabilities. Part II. The lateral compartment. J Bone Joint Surg. Am. [Internet]. [cited 2014 Nov 17];58:173–179. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1254620
  8. 8.
    Dietz GW, Wilcox DM, Montgomery JB (1986) Segond tibial condyle fracture: lateral capsular ligament avulsion. Radiology [Internet]. [cited 2015 Apr 29];159:467–469. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3961179
  9. 9.
    Goldman AB, Pavlov H, Rubenstein D (1988) The Segond fracture of the proximal tibia: a small avulsion that reflects major ligamentous damage. AJR Am J Roentgenol. [Internet]. [cited 2015 Apr 29];151:1163–1167. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3263770
  10. 10.
    Johnson LL (1979) Lateral capsular ligament complex: anatomical and surgical considerations. Am J Sports Med. [Internet]. [cited 2015 Apr 29];7:156–160. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/464170
  11. 11.
    Segond P (1879) Recherches cliniques et experimentales sur les epanchements sanguins du genou par entorse. Progres Medical, ParisGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Norwood LA, Andrews JR, Meisterling RC, Clancy GL (1979) Acute anterolateral rotatory instability of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Am 61-A:704–709Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Claes S, Luyckx T, Vereecke E, Bellemans J (2014) The Segond fracture: a bony injury of the anterolateral ligament of the knee. Arthroscopy [Internet]. [cited 2015 Jul 3];30:1475–1482. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25124480
  14. 14.
    Bhatia S, LaPrade CM, Ellman MB, LaPrade RF (2014) Meniscal root tears: significance, diagnosis, and treatment. Am J Sports Med. [Internet]. [cited 2015 Apr 29];42:3016–3030. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24623276
  15. 15.
    Tanaka M, Vyas D, Moloney G, Bedi A, Pearle AD, Musahl V (2012) What does it take to have a high-grade pivot shift? Knee Surg. Sports Traumatol. Arthrosc. [Internet]. [cited 2015 Mar 5];20:737–742. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22222616
  16. 16.
    Thompson WO, Fu FH (1993) The meniscus in the cruciate-deficient knee. Clin Sports Med. [Internet]. [cited 2015 Apr 29];12:771–796. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8261525
  17. 17.
    Kittl C, El Daou H, Athwayl K, Gupte C, Weiler A, Williams A et al (2015) The role of the anterolateral structures and the ACL in controlling internal rotational knee laxity. ISAKOS Bienn Congr. [Internet]. Lyon; [cited 2015 Jun 15]. Available from: https://www.isakos.com/meetings/2015congress/AbstractView?EventID=8115
  18. 18.
    Zelle BA, Vidal AF, Brucker PU, Fu FH (2007) Double-bundle reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: anatomic and biomechanical rationale. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 15:87–96CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yagi M, Wong EK, Kanamori A, Debski RE, Fu FH, Woo SL-Y (2002) Biomechanical analysis of an anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Am J Sports Med 30:660–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Meredick RB, Vance KJ, Appleby D, Lubowitz JH (2008) Outcome of single-bundle versus double-bundle reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: a meta-analysis. Am J Sports Med 36:1414–1421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bedi A, Raphael B, Maderazo A, Pavlov H, Williams RJ (2010) Transtibial versus anteromedial portal drilling for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a cadaveric study of femoral tunnel length and obliquity. Arthrosc J Arthrosc Relat Surg. [Internet]. Elsevier Inc.; 6:342–350. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.arthro.2009.12.006
  22. 22.
    Markolf KL, Jackson SR, McAllister DR (2010) A comparison of 11 o’clock versus oblique femoral tunnels in the anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed knee: knee kinematics during a simulated pivot test. Am J Sports Med 38:912–917CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lee MC, Seong SC, Lee S, Chang CB, Park YK, Jo H et al (2007) Vertical femoral tunnel placement results in rotational knee laxity after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Arthroscopy [Internet]. [cited 2015 Apr 29];23:771–778. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17637414
  24. 24.
    Loh JC, Fukuda Y, Tsuda E, Steadman RJ, Fu FH, Woo SLY (2003) Knee stability and graft function following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Comparison between 11 o’clock and 10 o’clock femoral tunnel placement. Arthrosc J Arthrosc Relat Surg 19:297–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Scopp JM, Jasper LE, Belkoff SM, Moorman CT (2004) The effect of oblique femoral tunnel placement on rotational constraint of the knee reconstructed using patellar tendon autografts. Arthroscopy [Internet]. [cited 2015 Apr 29];20:294–299. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15007318
  26. 26.
    Jepsen CF, Lundberg-Jensen AK, Faunoe P (2007) Does the position of the femoral tunnel affect the laxity or clinical outcome of the anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed knee? A clinical, prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Arthroscopy [Internet]. [cited 2015 Apr 29];23:1326–1333. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18063177
  27. 27.
    Kato Y, Ingham SJM, Kramer S, Smolinski P, Saito A, Fu FH (2009) Effect of tunnel position for anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction on knee biomechanics in a porcine model. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 18:2–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kato Y, Maeyama A, Lertwanich P, Wang JH, Ingham SJM, Kramer S et al (2012) Biomechanical comparison of different graft positions for single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 21:816–823CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kondo E, Merican AM, Yasuda K, Amis AA (2011) Biomechanical comparison of anatomic double-bundle, anatomic single-bundle, and nonanatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Am J Sports Med. [Internet]. [cited 2015 Jun 16];39:279–288. Available from: http://ajs.sagepub.com/content/39/2/279.short
  30. 30.
    Shelbourne K, Gray T, Haro M (2009) Incidence of subsequent injury to either knee within 5 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon autograft. Am J Sports Med 37:246–251CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kaeding CC, Aros B, Pedroza A, Pifel E, Amendola A, Andrish JT et al (2011) Allograft versus autograft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: predictors of failure from a MOON prospective longitudinal cohort. Sports Health 3:73–81CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mohtadi NG, Chan DS, Dainty KN, Whelan DB (2011) Patellar tendon versus hamstring tendon autograft for anterior cruciate ligament rupture in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. [Internet]. [cited 2015 Apr 29];CD005960. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21901700
  33. 33.
    Magnussen RA, Lawrence JTR, West RL, Toth AP, Taylor DC, Garrett WE (2012) Graft size and patient age are predictors of early revision after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring autograft. Arthroscopy [Internet]. [cited 2015 Apr 29];28:526–531. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22305299
  34. 34.
    Kocher MS, Steadman JR, Briggs K, Zurakowski D, Sterett WI, Hawkins RJ (2002) Determinants of patient satisfaction with outcome after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Bone Joint Surg Am 84-A:1560–1572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ayeni OR, Chahal M, Tran MN, Sprague S (2012) Pivot shift as an outcome measure for ACL reconstruction: a systematic review. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. [Internet]. [cited 2015 Apr 29];20:767–777. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22218828
  36. 36.
    Leiter JRS, Gourlay R, McRae S, de Korompay N, MacDonald PB (2014) Long-term follow-up of ACL reconstruction with hamstring autograft. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. [Internet]. [cited 2015 Apr 29];22:1061–1069. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23595537
  37. 37.
    Jonsson H, Riklund-Ahlström K, Lind J (2004) Positive pivot shift after ACL reconstruction predicts later osteoarthrosis: 63 patients followed 5-9 years after surgery. Acta Orthop Scand 75:594–599CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Catterall JB, Stabler T V, Flannery CR, Kraus VB (2010) Changes in serum and synovial fluid biomarkers after acute injury (NCT00332254). Arthritis Res Ther. [Internet]. [cited 2015 Jun 24];12:R229. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3046542&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract
  39. 39.
    Natoli RM, Scott CC, Athanasiou KA (2008) Temporal effects of impact on articular cartilage cell death, gene expression, matrix biochemistry, and biomechanics. Ann Biomed Eng. [Internet]. [cited 2015 Jun 24];36:780–792. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18299988
  40. 40.
    Schindler OS (2012) Surgery for anterior cruciate ligament deficiency: a historical perspective. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 20:5–47CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ellison A (1978) Anterolateral rotatory instability. In: Funk F Jr (ed) Symposium on the athlete's knee, surgical repair and reconstruction. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, St. Louis, AAOS, pp 178–193Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Engebretsen L, Lew WD, Lewis JL, Hunter RE (1990) The effect of an iliotibial tenodesis on intraarticular graft forces and knee joint motion. Am J Sports Med 18:169–176CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Draganich LF, Reider B, Ling M, Samuelson M (1990) An in vitro study an intraarticular and extraarticular reconstruction in the anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee. Am J Sports Med 18:262–266CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Monaco E, Labianca L, Conteduca F (2007) De Carli a., Ferretti a. Double bundle or single bundle plus extraarticular tenodesis in ACL reconstruction?: AAA CAOS study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 15:1168–1174CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zaffagnini S, Signorelli C, Lopomo N, Bonanzinga T, Marcheggiani Muccioli GM, Bignozzi S et al. (2012) Anatomic double-bundle and over-the-top single-bundle with additional extra-articular tenodesis: an in vivo quantitative assessment of knee laxity in two different ACL reconstructions. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. [Internet]. [cited 2015 Apr 29];20:153–159. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21710111
  46. 46.
    Spencer L, Burkhart TA, Tran MN, Rezansoff AJ, Deo S, Caterine S et al. (2015) Biomechanical Analysis of Simulated Clinical Testing and Reconstruction of the Anterolateral Ligament of the Knee. Am J Sports Med [Internet]. [cited 2015 Jun 24];0363546515589166. Available from: http://ajs.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/06/19/0363546515589166.abstract
  47. 47.
    Lemaire M (1967) Ruptures anciennes du ligament croise anterieur du genou: Requence, Clinique, Traitement. (46 cas). J Chir 93:311–320Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Losee RE, Johnson TR, Southwick WO (1978) Anterior subluxation of the lateral tibial plateau. A diagnostic test and operative repair. J Bone Joint Surg Am. [Internet]. [cited 2015 Apr 29];60:1015–1030. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/721850
  49. 49.
    Ellison AE (1979) Distal iliotibial-band transfer for anterolateral rotatory instability of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Am 61-A:330–337Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ireland J, Trickey E (1980) MacIntosh tenodesis for anterolateral instability of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Br 62-B:340–345Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    McCulloch PC, Lattermann C, Boland AL, Bach BR (2007) An illustrated history of anterior cruciate ligament surgery. J Knee Surg 20:95–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Andrews JR, Sanders R (1983) A “mini-reconstruction” technique in treating anterolateral rotatory instability (ALRI). Clin Orthop Relat Res 172:93–96Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kennedy JC, Stewart R, Walker DM (1978) Anterolateral rotatory instability of the knee joint. J Bone Joint Surg Am 60-A:1031–1039Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fox JM, Blazina ME, Del Pizzo W, Ivey FM, Broukhim B (1980) Extra-articular stabilization of the knee joint for anterior instability. Clin Orthop Relat Res 56–61Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Neyret P, Palomo JR, Donell ST, Dejour H (1994) Extra-articular tenodesis for anterior cruciate ligament rupture in amateur skiers. Br J Sports Med 28:31–34CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Johnson DS, Smith RB (2001) Outcome measurement in the ACL deficient knee – what’s the score? Knee 8:51–57CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sydney S, Haynes D, Hungerford D, Gerdes M (1987) The altered kinematic effect of an iliotibial band tenodesis on the anterior cruciate deficient knee. Orthopaedic Research Society, Transaction of Annual Meeting, p. 340Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Draganich LF, Reider B, Miller PR (1989) An in vitro study of the Muller anterolateral femorotibial ligament tenodesis in the anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee. Am J Sports Med 17:357–362CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Amis AA, Scammell BE (1993) Biomechanics of intra-articular and extra-articular reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. J Bone Joint Surg Br 75:812–817PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Anderson AF, Snyder RB, Lipscomb AB (2001) Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A prospective randomized study of three surgical methods. Am J Sports Med 29:272–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Dandy DJ (1995) Some clinical aspects of reconstruction for chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficiency. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 77:290–298PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bertoia JT, Urovitz EP, Richards RR, Gross AE (1985) Anterior cruciate reconstruction using the MacIntosh lateral-substitution over-the-top repair. J Bone Joint Surg Am 67-S:1183–1188Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Zarins B, Rowe CR (1986) Combined anterior cruciate-ligament reconstruction using semitendinosus tendon and iliotibial tract. J Bone Joint Surg Am 68-A:160–177Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rackemann S, Robinson A, Dandy DJ (1991) Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with an intra-articular patellar tendon graft and an extra-articular tenodesis: results after six years. J Bone Joint Surg Br 73-B:368–373Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Dejour H, Walsh G, Neyret P, Adeleine P (1988) Resultats des laxites chroniques anterieures operees. Rev Chir Orthop 74:622–636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Marcacci M, Zaffagnini S, Iacono F, Neri MP, Loreti I, Petitto A (1998) Arthroscopic intra- and extra-articular anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with gracilis and semitendinosus tendons. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. [Internet]. [cited 2015 Apr 29];6:68–75. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9604189
  67. 67.
    Colombet PD (2011) Navigated intra-articular ACL reconstruction with additional extra-articular tenodesis using the same hamstring graft. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 19:384–389CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hewison CE, Tran MN, Kaniki N, Remtulla A, Bryant D, Getgood AM (2015) Lateral extra-articular tenodesis reduces rotational laxity when combined with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review of the literature. Arthroscopy [Internet]. Elsevier; [cited 2015 Jul 25]; Available from: http://www.arthroscopyjournal.org/article/S0749806315003862/fulltext
  69. 69.
    Marcacci M, Zaffagnini S, Giordano G, Iacono F, Presti ML (2009) Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction associated with extra-articular tenodesis: a prospective clinical and radiographic evaluation with 10- to 13-year follow-up. Am J Sports Med 37:707–714CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Zaffagnini S, Marcacci M, Lo Presti M, Giordano G, Iacono F, Neri MP (2006) Prospective and randomized evaluation of ACL reconstruction with three techniques: a clinical and radiographic evaluation at 5 years follow-up. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 14:1060–1069CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Trojani C, Beaufils P, Burdin G, Bussière C, Chassaing V, Djian P et al (2012) Revision ACL reconstruction: influence of a lateral tenodesis. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 20:1565–1570CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Musahl V, Kopf S, Rabuck S, Becker R, van der Merwe W, Zaffagnini S et al (2012) Rotatory knee laxity tests and the pivot shift as tools for ACL treatment algorithm. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 20:793–800CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lerat JL, Moyen BL, Cladière F, Besse JL, Abidi H (2000) Knee instability after injury to the anterior cruciate ligament. Quantification of the Lachman test. J Bone Joint Surg Br 82:42–47CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lording TD, Lustig S, Servien E, Neyret P (2014) Lateral reinforcement in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Asia-Pacific J Sport Med Arthrosc Rehabil Technol. [Internet]. 1:3–10. Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2214687313000034
  75. 75.
    Papageorgiou CD, Gil JE, Kanamori A, Fenwick JA, Woo SL, Fu FH (2001) The biomechanical interdependence between the anterior cruciate ligament replacement graft and the medial meniscus. Am J Sports Med 29:226–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Trojani C, Sbihi A, Djian P, Potel JF, Hulet C, Jouve F et al (2011) Causes for failure of ACL reconstruction and influence of meniscectomies after revision. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 19:196–201CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Christel P, Djian P (2002) Anterio-lateral extra-articular tenodesis of the knee using a short strip of fascia lata. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot. [Internet]. [cited 2015 Apr 29];88:508–513. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12399717
  78. 78.
    Getgood A (2014) Lateral Extra-Articular Tenodesis (LET) – indications and technique [Internet]. VuMedi. [cited 2015 Jun 15]. Available from: https://www.vumedi.com/video/lateral-extra-articular-tenodesis-let-indications-and-technique/
  79. 79.
    Salmon L, Russell V, Musgrove T, Pinczewski L, Refshauge K (2005) Incidence and risk factors for graft rupture and contralateral rupture after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Arthroscopy 21:948–957CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Wright RW, Dunn WR, Amendola A, Andrish JT, Bergfeld J, Kaeding CC et al (2007) Risk of tearing the intact anterior cruciate ligament in the contralateral knee and rupturing the anterior cruciate ligament graft during the first 2 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a prospective MOON cohort study. Am J Sports Med. [Internet]. [cited 2015 Mar 9];35:1131–1134. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17452511
  81. 81.
    Brophy R, Schmitz L, Wright RW (2012) Return to play and future ACL injury risk after ACL reconstruction in soccer athletes from the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) group. Am J Sports Med 40:2517–2522CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Getgood A (2013) Standard ACL reconstruction vs ACL + lateral extra-articular tenodesis study (STAbiLiTY) [Internet]. ClinicalTrials.gov. [cited 2015 Jun 16]. Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02018354

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin V. Herman
    • 1
  • Timothy D. Lording
    • 2
  • Alan Getgood
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Fowler Kennedy Sport Medicine ClinicWestern UniversityLondonCanada
  2. 2.Melbourne Orthopaedic Group, Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryThe Alfred HospitalMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations