The MacIntosh Procedure

  • Vehniah K. TjongEmail author
  • Daniel B. Whelan


Historically known as the first surgical technique to address the pivot shift phenomenon following anterior cruciate ligament rupture, the MacIntosh procedure, also known as the extra-articular lateral tenodesis, has evolved over time since its original description. The following chapter outlines the birth of the MacIntosh I and its progression to the MacIntosh II, the most common form currently described and employed in practice. A discussion of current literature is presented to investigate its use as an adjunct for rotational stability in the setting of an ACL reconstruction. Although preliminary data suggests that this procedure may provide rotational stability for the ACL-deficient knee, there are no long-term studies to support its efficacy or affect on post-reconstruction osteoarthritis of the knee.


Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tibial Tunnel Pivot Shift Lateral Collateral Ligament Pivot Shift Test 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Orthopaedic SurgeryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

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