Use of Inertial Sensors for Quantifying the Pivot Shift Maneuver

  • Per Henrik BorgstromEmail author
  • Edward Cheung
  • Keith L. Markolf
  • David R. McAllister
  • William J. Kaiser
  • Frank A. Petrigliano


There is emerging interest in the use of inertial sensors such as gyroscopes and accelerometers in evaluating rotational instability of the knee. In particular, a number of groups have recently investigated the use of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors in instrumenting the pivot shift examination. Using such sensors, it has been demonstrated that an injured knee subjected to the exam tends to undergo larger accelerations than its normal counterpart. Further, higher pivot shift scores (Benjaminse et al. Orthop Phys Ther 36(5):267–288, 2006; Berruto et al. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 21(4):981–985, 2013) are typically associated with elevated accelerations. Diagnosis of ACL rupture or other quantifications of ACL state based on thresholding of such sensor data does not provide sufficient accuracy for clinical use. However, application of advanced classification techniques to such data has yielded large improvements in diagnostic accuracy.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Per Henrik Borgstrom
    • 1
    Email author
  • Edward Cheung
    • 2
  • Keith L. Markolf
    • 2
  • David R. McAllister
    • 2
  • William J. Kaiser
    • 3
  • Frank A. Petrigliano
    • 2
  1. 1.Wireless Health InstituteUniversity of California at Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Orthopedic SurgeryUniversity of California at Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Wireless Health InstituteUniversity of California at Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA

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