Development of Arthrometry

  • Najeeb Khan
  • Eric Dockter
  • Donald Fithian
  • Ronald NavarroEmail author
  • William Luetzow


Assessment of knee laxity is an important part of a clinical evaluation in the patient with symptoms of knee instability. There are several ways to evaluate knee laxity. First is the physical examination, which includes special physical maneuvers and tests that a clinician may use to evaluate the knee ligamentous structure and function. Arthrometry is another physical examination tool that gives the clinician a more objective way to measure knee laxity and is the focus of this chapter. The first-generation arthrometers were first developed in the late 1970s. These include the UCLA Instrumented clinical testing apparatus, Genucom knee analysis system, Stryker Knee Laxity Tester, Shino knee testing apparatus, KT-1000, Kneelax, Vermont knee laxity device, CA-4000 electrogoniometer, Dyonics Dynamic Cruciate Tester, and Rolimeter. The KT-1000 has become the gold standard of arthrometers and is utilized extensively in research. The operational technique, comparisons with MRI, and limitations are described in this chapter. First-generation arthrometers all focused on measuring translation in a single plane only. The second-generation arthrometers include more sophisticated technologies, which allow calculation of more complex measurements in more than one plane. These include qualitative pivot shift application, KneeKG, Rotameter, GNRB, robotic knee test, and SmartJoint.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Najeeb Khan
    • 1
  • Eric Dockter
    • 2
  • Donald Fithian
    • 2
  • Ronald Navarro
    • 3
    Email author
  • William Luetzow
    • 4
  1. 1.Kaiser PermanenteSan Marcos Outpatient Medical CenterSan MarcosUSA
  2. 2.Kaiser PermanenteEl Cajon Medical OfficesEl CajonUSA
  3. 3.Kaiser PermanenteSouth Bay Medical Center, Coastline MOBHarbor CityUSA
  4. 4.Kaiser PermanenteGarfield Specialty CenterSan DiegoUSA

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