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Inpatient Neonatal Dermatology

  • Kimberly Jablon
  • Erin MathesEmail author
Chapter
  • 925 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter discusses five cutaneous conditions seen in the newborn period that have implications for the health of the newborn: subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn, aplasia cutis, congenital melanocytic nevus, neonatal lupus, and incontinentia pigmenti. Neonatal subcutaneous fat necrosis is a disorder that presents with erythematous nodules in the newborn. It is a self-resolving condition associated with neonatal stress or hypothermia, and may be complicated by hypercalcemia. Aplasia cutis congenita is a heterogeneous group of disorders with many genetic and environmental causes, which all present with absence of the epidermis, and sometimes deeper tissues. Most lesions heal spontaneously with standard wound care, although larger lesions may need to be treated surgically. Neonatal lupus is a transient, passively acquired immune disorder due to maternal antibodies that can affect the skin, heart, and blood. The most serious risk is congenital heart block, which can be permanent and must be screened for carefully. Giant congenital melanocytic nevi are benign proliferations of melanocytes that may be associated with neurocutaneous melanocytosis and malignant melanoma. Proper surveillance for complications and avoidance of unnecessary prophylactic treatment is crucial. Incontinentia pigmenti is a rare dominant X-linked genetic disorder that presents with four distinct stages of skin lesions following the lines of Blaschko. Other systems that may be affected include the central nervous, dental, and ophthalmologic systems.

Keywords

Neonatal subcutaneous fat necrosis Neonatal lupus Anti-Ro/La antibodies Lines of Blaschko Incontinentia pigmenti Melanocytic nevus Cutis aplasia Hypercalcemia Neurocutaneous melanosis Congenital heart block 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsUCSF Benioff Children’s HospitalSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Dermatology and PediatricsUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

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