Advertisement

Muslims in Australia and Germany: Demographics, Resources, Citizenship

  • Mario Peucker
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Politics of Identity and Citizenship Series book series ( CAL)

Abstract

This chapter contextualises the empirical study on Muslims’ civic and political engagement in Australia and Germany by providing an overview on the demographic and socioeconomic situation of Muslims in both countries. According to the Civic Voluntarism Model (Verba et al. 1995), resources and skills enable citizens to become politically active, and there is evidence that this facilitating factor applies to both political and civic participation. This chapter also elaborates on various dimensions of Muslim citizenship, based on existing research, namely their legal status, sense of belonging, recognition (or lack thereof) and participation.

Keywords

Political Participation Civic Engagement Generation Immigrant Muslim Community Active Citizenship 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abdalla, M., & Rane, H. (2007). The impact of media representations on the understanding of Islam and attitudes toward Muslims in Queensland. Report prepared for Multicultural Affairs Queensland. Online document viewed 23 April 2015 www.griffith.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/52083/MAQ.pdf
  2. Abdullah, M. S. (1981). Geschichte des Islam in Deutschland. Graz: Styria.Google Scholar
  3. Akbarzadeh, S., & Smith, B. (2005). The representation of Islam and Muslims in the media (the age and Herald Sun Newspapers). Melbourne: Monash University.Google Scholar
  4. Al-Momani, K., Dados, N., Maddox, M., & Wise, A. (2010). Political participation of Muslims in Australia. Sydney: Macquarie University.Google Scholar
  5. Aly, A. (2007). Australian Muslim responses to the discourse on terrorism in the Australian popular media. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 42(1), 27–40.Google Scholar
  6. Andersen, B. (1991). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  7. Ata, A. W. (2012). How Muslims and Islam are perceived in Australian public, private and religious schools: A national survey. In F. Mansouri & V. Marotta (eds.), Muslims in the West and the challenges of belonging (pp. 198–235). Carlton: Melbourne University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). (2011a). Voluntary work Australia. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. Online document viewed 21 April 2015 http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/404350EEC6509985CA2579580013177A/$File/44410_2010.pdf
  9. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). (2011b). General social survey. Summary results. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. Online document viewed 21 April 2015 http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/D0B6CB77DE0BF677CA25791A00824C41/$File/41590_2010.pdf
  10. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). (2012). 2011 census of housing and population, table builder (own calculations based on census data available at http://www.abs.gov.au/census)
  11. Australian Multicultural Foundation (AMF), & Volunteering Australia (VA). (2007a). Muslim youth and volunteering. Research bulletin (June 2007). Melbourne: VA.Google Scholar
  12. Australian Multicultural Foundation (AMF), & Volunteering Australia (VA). (2007b). National survey of Australian volunteers from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Melbourne: VA.Google Scholar
  13. Bauböck, R., Kraler, A., Martiniello, M., & Perchinig, B. (2006). Migrants’ citizenship: Legal status, rights and political participation. In R. Penninx, M. Berger, & K. Kraal (Eds.), The dynamics of international migration and settlement in Europe. A state of the art (pp. 65–98). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Berinsky, A. J., & Lenz, G. S. (2011). Education and political participation: Exploring the causal link. Political Behavior, 33(3), 357–373.Google Scholar
  15. Bertelsmann Stiftung (Ed.). (2008). Religionsmonitor 2008. Muslimische Religiosität in Deutschland: Überblick zu religiösen Einstellungen und Praktiken. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Foundation.Google Scholar
  16. Bleich, E. (2011). What is islamophobia and how much is there? Theorizing and measuring an emerging comparative concept. American Behavioral Scientist, 55(12), 1581–1600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bloemraad, I. (2006). Becoming a citizen in the United States and Canada: Structured mobilization and immigrant political incorporation. Social Forces, 85(2), 667–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Booth, A., Leigh, A., & Varganova, E. (2012). Does ethnic discrimination vary across minority groups? Evidence from a field experiment. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 74(4), 547–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bouma, G. D. (2011). Islamophobia as a constraint to world peace: The case of Australia. Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations, 22(4), 433–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brasted, H. (2001). Contested representations in historical perspective: Images of Islam and the Australian press 1950–2000. In A. Saeed & S. Akbarzadeh (Eds.), Muslim communities in Australia (pp. 206–227). Sydney: UNSW Press.Google Scholar
  21. Brettfeld, K., & Wetzels, P. (2007). Muslime in Deutschland. Berlin: BMI.Google Scholar
  22. Bundesministerin für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend (BMFSFJ). (2010). Hauptbericht des Freiwilligensurveys 2009. Zivilgesellschaft, soziales Kapital und freiwilliges Engagement in Deutschland 1999 – 2004 – 2009. Berlin: BMFSFJ.Google Scholar
  23. Bundesministerium des Innern (BMI), & Bundesamtes für Migration und Flüchtlinge (BAMF). (2015). Migrationsbericht 2013. Nuremberg: BAMF.Google Scholar
  24. Cesari, J. (2013). Why the West fears Islam. An exploration of Muslims in liberal democracies. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cleland, B. (2001). The history of Muslims in Australia. In A. Saeed & S. Akbarzadeh (Eds.), Muslim communities in Australia (pp. 12–32). Sydney: UNSW Press.Google Scholar
  26. Cohen, A., Vigoda, E., & Samorly, A. (2001). Analysis of the mediating effect of personal-psychological variables on the relationship between socioeconomic status and political participation: A structural equations framework. Political Psychology, 22(4), 727–757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cultural and Indigenous Research Centre Australia (CIRCA). (2010). Civic and social participation of Australian Muslim men. Leichhardt: CIRCA.Google Scholar
  28. DESTATIS (Federal Statistical Office). (2012). Bevölkerung und Erwerbstätigkeit. Bevölkerung mit Migrationshintergrund – Ergebnisse des Mikrozensus 2011 Fachserie 1 Reihe 2.2. Wiesbaden: DESTATIS.Google Scholar
  29. DESTATIS (Federal Statistical Office). (2013). Bevölkerung und Erwerbstätigkeit. Einbürgerungen Fachserie 1 Reihe 2.1 – 2012. Wiesbaden: DESTATIS.Google Scholar
  30. DESTATIS (Federal Statistical Office). (2014). Bevölkerung und Erwerbstätigkeit. Bevölkerung mit Migrationshintergrund – Ergebnisse des Mikrozensus 2013 Fachserie 1 Reihe 2.2. Wiesbaden: DESTATIS.Google Scholar
  31. Dunn, K. M., Forrest, J., Pe-Pua, R., Hynes, M., & Maeder-Han, K. (2009). Cities of race hatred? The sphere of racism and anti-racism in contemporary Australian cities. Cosmopolitan Civil Societies. An Interdisciplinary Journal, 1(1), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dunn, K., Atie, R., Mapedzahama, V., Ozalp, M., & Aydogan, A. (2015). The resilience and ordinariness of Australian Muslims. Attitudes and experiences of Muslims report. Sydney: Wester Sydney University and ISRA Australia.Google Scholar
  33. Frindte, W., Boehnke, K., Kreikenbom, H., & Wagner, W. (2011). Lebenswelt junger Muslime in Deutschland. Berlin: BMI.Google Scholar
  34. Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA). (2009). European Union minorities and discrimination survey. Data in focus report: Muslims. Vienna: FRA.Google Scholar
  35. Gallup. (2009). The Gallup Coexist Index 2009: Global study on interfaith relations. Washington, DC: Gallup.Google Scholar
  36. Geiss, S., & Gensicke, T. (2006). Freiwilliges Engagement von Migrantinnen und Migranten. In T. Gensicke, S. Picot, & S. Geiss (Eds.), Freiwilliges Engagement in Deutschland 1999–2004 (pp. 302–349). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.Google Scholar
  37. Gendera, S., Pe-Pua, R., & Katz, I. (2012). Social cohesion and social capital: The experiences of Australian Muslim families in two communities. In F. Mansouri & V. Marotta (Eds.), Muslims in the West and the challenges of belonging (pp. 89–113). Carlton: Melbourne University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Gisart, B. (2013). Demokratie und politische Partizipation. In Statistisches Bundesamt & Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (eds.), Datenreport 2013. Ein Sozialbericht für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland (pp. 357–362). Bonn: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung.Google Scholar
  39. Hafez, K. (Ed.). (2000). Islam and the West in the mass media. Fragmented images in a globalizing world. Cresskill: Hampton Press.Google Scholar
  40. Hafez, K., & Richter, C. (2007). Das Islambild von ARD und ZDF. Aus Poltik und Zeitgeschichte, 26–27, 40–46.Google Scholar
  41. Halm, D., & Sauer, M. (2005). Freiwilliges Engagement von Türkinnen und Türken in Deutschland. Essen: ZfT.Google Scholar
  42. Halm, D., & Sauer, M. (2012). Angebote und Strukturen der islamischen Organisationen in Deutschland. In D. Halm, M. Sauer, J. Schmidt, & A. Stichs (Eds.), Islamisches Gemeindeleben in Deutschland. Nuremberg/Essen: BAMF/ZfTI.Google Scholar
  43. Halm, D., Liakova, M., & Yetik, Z. (2006). Die öffentlichen Diskurse um den Islam in den Jahren 2000 und 2004 und ihre Auswirkungen auf das Zusammenleben von Muslimen und Mehrheitsgesellschaft in Deutschland. Zeitschrift für Ausländerrechte und Ausländerpolitik, 26(5–6), 199–206.Google Scholar
  44. Harris, A., & Roose, J. (2014). DIY citizenship amongst young Muslims: Experiences of the “ordinary”. Journal of Youth Studies, 17(6), 794–813.Google Scholar
  45. Haug, S., Müssig, S., & Stichs, A. (2009). Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland. Nuremberg: BAMF.Google Scholar
  46. Idea. (2013). Zahl der Muslime steigt deutlich (27 September 2013). Online document viewed 21 April 2015 http://www.idea.de/nachrichten/detail/thema-des-tages/artikel/zahl-der-muslime-steigt-deutlich-904.html
  47. Isakhan, B. (2010). Orientalism and the Australian news media: Origins and questions. In H. Rane, J. Ewart, & M. Abdalla (Eds.), Islam and the Australian news media (pp. 3–25). Carlton: Melbourne University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Isin, E. F., & Nielsen, G. M. (Eds.). (2008). Acts of citizenship. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  49. Issues Deliberation Australia (IDA). (2007). Australia deliberates: Muslims and non-Muslims in Australia. Glenelg: IDA.Google Scholar
  50. Jakubowicz, A., Collins, J., & Chafic, W. (2012). Young Australian Muslims: Social ecology and cultural capital. In F. Mansouri & V. Marotta (Eds.), Muslims in the West and the challenges of belonging (pp. 34–59). Carlton: Melbourne University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Jamal, A. (2005). The political participation and engagement of Muslim Americans: Mosque involvement and group consciousness. American Politics Research, 33(4), 521–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kaas, L., & Manger, C. (2010). Ethnic discrimination in Germany’s labour market: A field experiment. Bonn: IZA.Google Scholar
  53. Kabir, N. (2006). Representation of Islam and Muslims in the Australian media, 2001–2005. Journal for Muslim Minority Affairs, 26(3), 313–328.Google Scholar
  54. Klausen, J. (2005). The Islamic challenge: Politics and religion in Western Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Kolig, E., & Kabir, N. (2008). Not friend, not foe: The rocky road of enfranchisement of Muslims into multicultural nationhood in Australia and New Zealand. Immigrants & Minorities, 26(3), 266–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Koopmans, R. (2004). Migrant mobilisation and political opportunities: Variation among German cities and a comparison with the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 30(3), 449–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kornelius, B. (2010) Demokratie und Integration in Deutschland – Politische Führung und Partizipation aus Sicht von Menschen mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund: Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Befragung in Deutschland. In Bertelsmann Stiftung (Ed.), Demokratie und Integration in Deutschland. Politische Führung und Partizipation aus Sicht von Menschen mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund (pp. 11–130). Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung (E-Book).Google Scholar
  58. Madkhul, D. (2007). Supporting volunteering activities in Australian Muslim communities, particularly youth. Melbourne: Volunteering Australia (VA).Google Scholar
  59. Manning, P. (2004). Dog whistle politics and journalism. Reporting Arabic and Muslim people in Sydney Newspapers. Sydney: University of Technology Sydney.Google Scholar
  60. Mansouri, F. (2012). Muslim migration to Australia and the question of identity and belonging. In F. Mansouri & V. Marotta (Eds.), Muslims in the West and the challenges of belonging (pp. 13–33). Carlton: Melbourne University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Mansouri, F., Kenny, S., & Strong, C. (2007). Promoting intercultural understanding in Australia: An evaluation of local government initiatives in Victoria. Geelong: Deakin University.Google Scholar
  62. Markus, A. (2012a). Mapping social cohesion. The 2012 Scanlon Foundation surveys. National report. Caulfield East: Monash University.Google Scholar
  63. Markus, A. (2012b). Mapping social cohesion. The 2012 Scanlon Foundation surveys. Neighbourhoods report: Areas of immigrant concentration. Caulfield East: Monash University.Google Scholar
  64. Markus, A. (2015). Mapping social cohesion. The Scanlon Foundation Survey 2015. Caulfield East: Monash University.Google Scholar
  65. Martiniello, M. (2005). Political participation, mobilisation and representation of immigrants and their offspring in Europe. Malmö: University of Malmö.Google Scholar
  66. Monash University. (2009a). Mapping employment & education among Muslim Australians. Caulfield East: Monash University.Google Scholar
  67. Monash University. (2009b). Muslim voices. Hopes & aspirations of Muslim Australians. Caulfield East: Monash University.Google Scholar
  68. Müssig, S., & Worbs, S. (2012). Politische Einstellungen und politische Partizipation von Migranten in Deutschland. Nuremberg: BAMF.Google Scholar
  69. Nielsen, J. S. (Ed.). (2013). Muslim political participation in Europe. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Ögelman, N. (2003). Documenting and explaining the persistence of homeland politics among Germany’s Turks. International Migration Review, 37(1), 163–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Open Society Institute (OSI). (2010a). Muslims in Europe. A report on 11 EU cities. New York/London/Budapest: OSI.Google Scholar
  72. Open Society Institute (OSI). (2010b). Muslims in Berlin. New York/London/Budapest: OSI.Google Scholar
  73. Østergaard-Nielsen, E. (2001). Transnational politics: Turks and Kurds in Germany. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  74. Patton, C. (2014). Multicultural citizenship and religiosity: Young Australian Muslims forging a sense of belonging after 9/11. Journal for Intercultural Studies, 35(1), 107–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Peace, T. (2015). European social movements and Muslim activism. Another world but with whom? Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pędziwiatr, K. (2010). The new Muslim elites in European cities: Religion and active social citizenship amongst young organized Muslims in Brussels and London. Saarbrucken: VDM.Google Scholar
  77. Peucker, M., & Akbarzadeh, S. (2012). The vicious cycle of stereotyping: Muslims in Europe and Australia. In F. Mansouri & V. Marotta (Eds.), Muslims in the West and the challenges of belonging (pp. 171–197). Carlton: Melbourne University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Peucker, M., & Akbarzadeh, S. (2014). Muslim active citizenship in the West. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  79. Peucker, M., Roose, J. M., & Akbarzadeh, S. (2014). Muslim active citizenship in Australia: Socioeconomic challenges and the emergence of a Muslim elite. Australian Journal of Political Science, 49(2), 282–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pew Research Center. (2006). Conflicting views in a divided world 2006. Washington, DC: Pew.Google Scholar
  81. Poynting, S., & Noble, G. (2004). Living with racism: The experience and reporting by Arab and Muslim Australians of discrimination, abuse and violence since 11 September 2001. Report to the HREOC. Sydney: University of Western Sydney.Google Scholar
  82. Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon and Schuster.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rane, H. (2010). Media content and inter-community relations. In H. Rane, J. Ewart, & M. Abdalla (Eds.), Islam and the Australian news media (pp. 104–119). Carlton: Melbourne University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Read, J. G. (2015). Gender, religious identity, and civic engagement among Arab Muslims in the United States. Sociology of Religion, 76(1), 30–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sachverständigenrat deutscher Stiftungen fuer Integartion und Migration (SVR). (2010). Einwanderungsgesellschaft 2010. Jahresgutachten 2010 mit Integrationsbarometer. Berlin: SVR.Google Scholar
  86. Sauer, M. (2014). Integrationsprozesse, wirtschaftliche Lage und Zufriedenheit türkeistämmiger Zuwanderer in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Ergebnisse der Mehrthemenbefragung 2013. Essen: ZfTI.Google Scholar
  87. Sauter, M. (2008). Integration und Engagement bei jugendlichen Migranten – Rahmenbedingungen und Handlungsempfehlungen. vhw Forum Wohneigentum 4: 199–202.Google Scholar
  88. Schönwälder, K., & Söhn, J. (2009). Immigrant settlement structures in Germany: General patterns and urban levels of concentration of major groups. Urban Studies, 46(7), 1439–1460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schönwälder, K., Sinanoglu, C., & Volkert, D. (2011). Vielfalt sucht Rat. Ratsmitglieder mit Migrationshintergrund in deutschen Großstädten. Berlin: Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung.Google Scholar
  90. Smith, D., Wykes, J., Jayarajah, S., & Fabijanic, T. (2011). Citizenship in Australia. Canberra: DIAC.Google Scholar
  91. The Runnymede Trust. (1997). Islamophobia – A challenge for us all. London: The Runnymede Trust.Google Scholar
  92. Thielmann, J. (2008). Vielfältige muslimische Religiosität in Deutschland. In Bertelsmann Stiftung (Ed.), Religionsmonitor 2008. Muslimische Religiosität in Deutschland: Überblick zu religiösen Einstellungen und Praktiken (pp. 13–21). Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Foundation.Google Scholar
  93. Tibi, B. (2007). A migration story, from Muslim immigrants to European “citizens of the heart”? The Fletcher Forum of Word Affairs, 31(1), 147–168.Google Scholar
  94. University of Münster. (2010). Germans are much less tolerant of Muslims. Online document viewed 21 April 2015 http://www.uni-muenster.de/Religion-und-Politik/en/aktuelles/2010/dez/PM_Studie_Religioese_Vielfalt_in_Europa.html
  95. Verba, S., Schlozman, K. L., & Brady, H. (1995). Voice and equality. Civic voluntarism in American politics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Walsh, L., & Black, R. (2015). Youth volunteering in Australia: An evidence review. Braddon: ARACY.Google Scholar
  97. Woodlock, R. (2011). Being an Aussie Mossie: Muslim and Australian identity among Australian-born Muslims. Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations, 22(4), 391–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wüst, A. M. (2002). Wie wählen Neubürger? Politische Einstellungen und Wahlverhalten eingebürgerter Personen in Deutschland. Opladen: Leske+Budrich.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wüst, A. M. (2011a). Migrants as parliamentary actors in Germany. In K. Bird, T. Saalfeld, & A. M. Wüst (Eds.), The political representation of immigrants and minorities. Voters, parties and parliaments in liberal democracies (pp. 250–265). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  100. Yasmeen, S. (2007). Muslim women as citizens in Australia. Diverse notions and practices. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 42(1), 41–54.Google Scholar
  101. Zick, A., & Heeren, J. (2012). Muslims in the European mediascape: Germany country report. London: Institute for Strategic Dialogue.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario Peucker
    • 1
  1. 1.Victoria UniversityCentre for Cultural Diversity and WellbeingMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations