Advertisement

Atmospheric Propagation of High-Energy Laser Beams

Chapter

Abstract

Starting from the invention of LASER in the early 1960s, laser radiation propagation in the atmosphere has been the subject of intensive research. The high spatial and time coherence of laser sources makes their application attractive for communication, location, geodesy, and high-energy transmission over long distances. Laser sources are widely used for exploring the atmosphere, in particular, its gas composition and pollution, velocities of air and sea flows, and features of the land and sea surface.

Keywords

Attenuation Coefficient Optical Depth Adaptive Optic Stagnation Zone Adaptive Optical System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Tatarsky VI (1967) Wave propagation in the turbulent atmosphere. Nauka Publishers, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gurvich S, Kon AI, Mironov VL, Khmelevtsov SS (1976) Laser radiation in the turbulent atmosphere. Nauka Publishers, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rytov SM, Kravtsov YA, Tatarsky VI (1978) Introduction to the statistical physics, part 2. Nauka Publishers, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Semyonov A, Arsenyanf TI (1978) Fluctuations of electromagnetic waves on paths close to earth. Nauka Publishers, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gochelashvi KS, Shishov VI (1981) Waves in randomly-inhomogeneous media, vol 1. Viniti Publishers, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Strohbeh JW (ed) (1978) Laser beam propagation in the atmosphere, Topics in applied physics. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zuyev VI (1981) Propagation of laser radiation in the atmosphere. Radio i svyaz, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ishimaruw A (1978) Wave propagation, and scattering in random media. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Akhmanov SA, Dyakov YE, Chirkin AS (1981) Introduction to the statistical radiophysics and optics. Nauka Publishers, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mironov VL (1981) Propagation of a laser beam in the turbulent atmosphere. Nauka Publishers, Novosibirsk (in Russian)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bakut PA, Ustinovn ND, Troitsky N, Sviridovz KN (1977) A rubezhnaya. Radioelectronika 1:3–29, 3, pp. 55-86 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hardy JW (1978) Active optics: a new technology of the control of light. Proc IEEE 66(6):651697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lukin VP (1986) Atmospheric adaptive optics. Nauka Publishers, Novosibirsk (in Russian)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Raizer YP (ed) (1968) The effect of laser radiation. Collection of articles. Translated from English. Mir Publishers, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Akhmanovd SA, Krindacha P, Migulin V et al (1968) IEEE J Quantum Electron QE-4(10):568–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gebhardt FG (1976) Appl Opt 15(6):1479–1493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Smith DC (1977) High power laser propagation, thermal blooming. Proc IEEE 65(12):1679–1714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gordin MP, Sokolov AV, Stielkov GM (1980) Ito gi nauki i tekhniki. Radiotekhnika 20:206–289, Viniti Publishers, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zuyev VY, Kopytin YD, Kuzikovsky AV (1980) Nonlinear optic effects in aerosols. Nauka Publishers, Novosibirsk (in Russian)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Volkovitsky OA, Sedunov S, Semyonov LP (1982) Propagation of intensive laser radiation in clouds. Gidrometeoizdat Publishers, Leningrad (in Russian)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Goryachevf LV, Grigoryevv V, Kalinovsky V et al (1977) Quant Electron 4(4):907–909 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Averbakha VS, Betin A, Gapnov VA et al (1978) Radiojzika 8:1077–1106Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Akhtyrchenko YV, Belyayev YB, Vysotsky YP et al (1983) Izv vuzov Fizika 26(2):5–13, Sov Phys J 26:105 (1983)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Glicler SL (1971) Appl Opt 10(3):644650Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sukhorukov P, Shljmilov EN (1973) Zh E T F 43(5):1029–1041Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Loskutov VS, Strelkov GM (1984) Clearing of the polydispersed aerosol by the laser radiation. Proceedings of the all-union conference on propagation of the laser radiation in disperse media. Obninsk, Part 2, pp 162–163 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brown RT, Smith DC (1975) J Appl Phys 46:402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Spangle P, Pefiano JR, Hafizi B (2007) Optimum wavelength and power for efficient laser propagation in various atmospheric environments. NRL/MR/6790-05-8907Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Berger PJ, Ulrich PB, Ulrich JT, Gebhardt FG (1977) Appl Opt 16:345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nielsen PE (1994) Effects of directed energy weapons. Philip E. NielsenGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Defense Science Board Task Force on High Energy Laser, Weapon System Applications, June 2001, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense For Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics. Washington, DC, 20301-3140Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mitchner M, Kruger CH Jr (1973) Partially ionized gases. Wiley Interscience, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Driscoll WG (ed) (1978) Handbook of optics. McGraw-Hill, New York, The upper portion of Figure 8.3 is based on a figure on p.115 of R. D. Hudson, Jr., Infrared Systems Engineering (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1969). The lower, expanded portion of the figure is based on Figure 2 in Frederic G. Gebhardt, “High Power Laser Propagation, “Applied Optics 15, 1484 (1976). Gebhardt’s paper is a good summary of many of the phenomena discussed in this chapter, at a somewhat higher level of technical detailGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Reif F (1965) Fundamentals of statistical and thermal physics. McGraw-Hill, New York, Section 6.3Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zuev VE (1982) Laser beams in the atmosphere. Consultant’s Bureau, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Born M, Wolf E (1975) Principles of optics, 5th edn. Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Axaryan GA (1963) Zh E T F 45(9):810812 (in Russian). Sov Phys J ETP 18:555 (1964)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Burn VI, Chaporov DP (1975) Transparency dynamics of the solid aerosol in the interaction with the pulse radiation. Third all-union symposium on laser radiation propagation in the atmosphere. Abs. of Papers. Tom&: Institute of the Atmospheric Optics, pp 119–122 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kolov VV, Chaporov DP (1983) Nonlinear distortion of the laser radiation in Haze. In: Zwev VY (ed) Problems of the atmospheric optics. Nauka Publishers, Novosibirsk, pp 3–12, in RussianGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vorobev VV (1991) Thermal blooming of laser beams in the atmosphere. The institute of Atmospheric Physics, U.S.S.R. Academy of Science. Prog Qmt Electr 15:I-152 (Pergamon Press plc)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gebhardt FG (1976) High power laser propagation. Appl Opt 15:1484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ulrich PB (1975) Numerical methods in high power laser propagation. AGARD conference proceedings No. 183, Optical Propagation in the Atmosphere, Paper No. 31, 27–31 October 1975Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bloembergen N, Patel CKN, Avizonis P, Clem RG, Hertzberg A, Johnson TH, Marshall T, Miller RB, Morrow WE, Salpeter EE, Sessler AM, Sullivan JD, Wyant JC, Yariv A, Zare RN, Glass AJ, Hebel LC, Pake GE, May MM, Panofsky WK, Schawlow AL, Townes CH, York H (1978) Report to The American Physical Society of the study group on science and technology of directed energy weapons. Rev Mod Phys 59(3 Part II), July 1978, Section 5.4.8.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pearson JE (1976) Atmospheric turbulence compensation using coherent optical adaptive techniques. Appl Opt 15:622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gebhardt FG (1976) High power laser propagation. Appl Opt 15(6):1479–1493CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Galaxy Advanced Engineering, Inc.AlbuquerqueUSA

Personalised recommendations