Critical Components of Phonemic Awareness Instruction and Intervention: Recommendations for Teacher Training and for Future Research

  • Stephanie Al OtaibaEmail author
  • Jill Allor
  • Krystal L. Werfel
  • Nathan Clemens
Part of the Literacy Studies book series (LITS, volume 13)


The purpose of this chapter is to describe critical components of phonemic awareness instruction and intervention for students in pre-k through second grade who have language delays, reading disabilities, or who are at-risk for future reading problems. First, we describe our theoretical framework. Second, we describe existing assessments for screening, progress monitoring, intervention design. Third, we describe four evidence-based intervention programs that range from Tier 1 to more intensive interventions and we provide links to websites that review additional interventions. Finally, we conclude with directions for future research related to phonemic awareness instruction and intervention for students with language impairments or reading disabilities.


Early literacy Teacher training Phonemic awareness 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephanie Al Otaiba
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jill Allor
    • 1
  • Krystal L. Werfel
    • 2
  • Nathan Clemens
    • 3
  1. 1.Simmons College of EducationSouthern Methodist UniversityDallasUSA
  2. 2.Department of Communication Sciences and DisordersUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  3. 3.College of Education & Human DevelopmentTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

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