A Research-Validated Program for Improving At-Risk Students’ Fraction Magnitude Understanding, Word-Problem Solving, and Explanations

  • Amelia S. MaloneEmail author
  • Lynn S. Fuchs
  • Douglas Fuchs
Part of the Literacy Studies book series (LITS, volume 13)


In this chapter, we describe a research-validated Tier II intervention program designed to prevent at-risk students from developing significant difficulty with fractions. We provide an overview of the instructional strategies used to improve at-risk students’ fraction magnitude understanding (i.e., comparing fractions, ordering fractions, and placing fractions on the number line), word-problem solving (i.e., multiplicative reasoning), and explanations (i.e., verbally explaining how to compare fraction magnitudes). We discuss each instructional strategy incorporated within the program to enhance these outcomes and explain how they can be effectively implemented to improve students’ understanding of fractions. We conclude by discussing results from 4 years of intervention research testing the efficacy of the program. At-risk students who participated in the intervention program outperformed at-risk classmates receiving fraction instruction in the general education classroom on assessments of fraction magnitude understanding (i.e., number line estimation), calculations, released fraction items from the National Assessment of Educational Progress, multiplicative-reasoning word problems, and verbal explanations of magnitude comparisons.


Response-to-intervention Tier II intervention Mathematics Fractions Learning difficulties 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amelia S. Malone
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lynn S. Fuchs
    • 1
  • Douglas Fuchs
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Special EducationVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA

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