Language and Literacy Interventions for ELs with LD: Two Steps Forward, One Step Back

  • Sylvia Linan-ThompsonEmail author
  • Hermelinda Cavazos
  • Laura McFarland
  • Julie Martinez
Part of the Literacy Studies book series (LITS, volume 13)


In the last 15 years there has been a proliferation of research with English learners (ELs), but limited research on ELs with learning disabilities or difficulties. Much of the research is in reading and with Spanish-speaking ELs in the primary grades. Thus, there is evidence and consensus to guide reading instruction for Spanish-speaking ELs with reading difficulties, but little in the other content areas, for older ELs, or those who speak a language other than Spanish as their first language. This chapter will present empirically supported instruction for ELs with literacy related learning disabilities or difficulties, promising practices in those areas that have a less robust research base and areas for future research.


English learners Language interventions Reading interventions Writing interventions Learning disabilities Language development Literacy development 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sylvia Linan-Thompson
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hermelinda Cavazos
    • 2
  • Laura McFarland
    • 3
  • Julie Martinez
    • 3
  1. 1.The University of OregonAustinUSA
  2. 2.American Institutes for ResearchWashingtonUSA
  3. 3.The University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

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