Advertisement

Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors

  • Steve BraunsteinEmail author
  • Sean M. McBride
  • Daphne A. Haas-Kogan
Chapter
Part of the Pediatric Oncology book series (PEDIATRICO)

Abstract

Intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a group of relatively uncommon tumors, comprising less than 1 % of all central nervous system (CNS) tumors, that have histological, genetic, biochemical, diagnostic, and therapeutic similarities to GCTs that occur outside the CNS (Ostrom et al. 2014). In this chapter, we review the epidemiology of intracranial GCTs, the pathologic features of both benign and malignant GCTs, and their molecular and cytogenetic characteristics. We discuss the clinical features of intracranial GCTs and the role of imaging and laboratory investigations in diagnosis. In broaching the controversy surrounding diagnostic biopsy, we delineate the arguments for and against mandatory biopsy prior to treatment. We review recent changes in practice with de-escalation in radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment approaches. Lastly, we discuss risk stratification to intensify treatment in patients with intracranial GCTs that have a poor prognosis.

Keywords

Embryonal Carcinoma Primordial Germ Cell Pineal Region Mature Teratoma Immature Teratoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Al-Hussaini M, Sultan I, Abuirmileh N, Jaradat I, Qaddoumi I (2009) Pineal gland tumors: experience from the SEER database. J Neurooncol 94(3):351–358. doi: 10.1007/s11060-009-9881-9 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen JC, Kim JH, Packer RJ (1987) Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for newly diagnosed germ-cell tumors of the central nervous system. J Neurosurg 67:65–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aoyama H, Shirato H, Ikeda J, Fujieda K, Miyasaka K, Sawamura Y (2002) Induction chemotherapy followed by low dose involved-field radiotherapy for intracranial germ cell tumors. J Clin Oncol 20:857–865PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Awa R, Campos F, Arita K, Sugiyama K, Tominaga A, Kurisu K et al (2014) Neuroimaging diagnosis of pineal region tumors-quest for pathognomonic finding of germinoma. Neuroradiology 56(7):525–534. doi: 10.1007/s00234-014-1369-4 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aydin F, Ghatak NR, Radie-Keane K, Kinard J, Land SD (1992) The short-term effect of low-dose radiation on intracranial germinoma. A pathologic study. Cancer 69:2322–2326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balmaceda C, Heller G, Rosenblum M, Diez B, Villablanca JG, Kellie S, Maher P, Vlamis V, Walker RW, Leibel S, Finlay JL (1996) Chemotherapy without irradiation–a novel approach for newly diagnosed CNS germ cell tumors: results of an international cooperative trial. The First International Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor Study. J Clin Oncol 14:2908–2915PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baranzelli MC, Patte C, Bouffet E, Portas M, Mechinaud-Lacroix F, Sariban E, Roche H, Kalifa C (1998) An attempt to treat pediatric intracranial alphaFP and betaHCG secreting germ cell tumors with chemotherapy alone. SFOP experience with 18 cases. Societe Francaise d’Oncologie Pediatrique. J Neurooncol 37:229–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beeley JM, Daly JJ, Timperley WR, Warner J (1973) Ectopic pinealoma: an unusual clinical presentation and a histochemical comparison with a seminoma of the testis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 36:864–873PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bernstein L, Smith MA, Liu L, Deapen D, Friedman DL (1999) Germ cell, trophoblastic and other gonadal neoplasms. In: Ries LAG, Smith MA, Gurney JG, Linet M, Tamara T, Young JL, Bunin GR (eds) Cancer incidence and survival among children and adolescents: United States SEER Program 1975–1995. National Cancer Institute SEER Program, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  10. Bouffet E, Baranzelli MC, Patte C, Portas M, Edan C, Chastagner P, Mechinaud-Lacroix F, Kalifa C (1999) Combined treatment modality for intracranial germinomas: results of a multicentre SFOP experience. Societe Francaise d’Oncologie Pediatrique. Br J Cancer 79:1199–1204PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brandes AA, Pasetto LM, Monfardini S (2000) The treatment of cranial germ cell tumours. Cancer Treat Rev 26:233–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Broniscer A, Ke W, Fuller CE, Wu J, Gajjar A, Kun LE (2004) Second neoplasms in pediatric patients with primary central nervous system tumors. Cancer, 100:2246–2252Google Scholar
  13. Buckner JC, Peethambaram PP, Smithson WA, Groover RV, Schomberg PJ, Kimmel DW, Raffel C, O’Fallon JR, Neglia J, Shaw EG (1999) Phase II trial of primary chemotherapy followed by reduced-dose radiation for CNS germ cell tumors. J Clin Oncol 17:933–940PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Calaminus G, Patte C (2005) Germ cell tumors in children and adolescents. In: Agarwal BR, Perilongo G, Rogers P, Strahl Endorf C, Eden OB (eds) International society of paediatric oncology (SIOP) education book. International Society of Paediatric Oncology, Vancouver, pp 109–116Google Scholar
  15. Calaminus G, Andreussi L, Garre ML, Kortmann RD, Schober R, Gobel U (1997) Secreting germ cell tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). First results of the cooperative German/Italian pilot study (CNS sGCT). Klin Padiatr 209:222–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Calaminus G, Kortmann R, Worch J, Nicholson JC, Alapetite C, Garrè ML, Patte C, Ricardi U, Saran F, Frappaz D (2013) SIOP CNS GCT 96: final report of outcome of a prospective, multinational nonrandomized trial for children and adults with intracranial germinoma,comparing craniospinal irradiation alone with chemotherapy followed by focal primary site irradiation for patients with localized disease. Neuro Oncol 15(6):788–796Google Scholar
  17. Chen MJ, Santos Ada S, Sakuraba RK, Lopes CP, Gonçalves VD, Weltman E, Ferrigno R, Cruz JC (2010) Intensity-modulated and 3D-conformal radiotherapy for whole-ventricular rradiation as compared with conventional whole-brain irradiation in the management of localized central nervous system germ cell tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 76(2):608–614Google Scholar
  18. Choi JU, Kim DS, Chung SS, Kim TS (1998) Treatment of germ cell tumors in the pineal region. Childs Nerv Syst 14:41–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cushing B, Perlman EJ, Marina NM, Castleberry RP (2002) Germ cell tumors. In: Pizzo PA, Poplack DG (eds) Principles and practice of pediatric oncology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 1091–1113Google Scholar
  20. de Bruin TW, Slater RM, Defferrari R, Geurts van Kessel A, Suijkerbuijk RF, Jansen G, de Jong B, Oosterhuis JW (1994) Isochromosome 12p-positive pineal germ cell tumor. Cancer Res 54:1542–1544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Drummond KJ, Rosenfeld JV (1999) Pineal region tumours in childhood. A 30-year experience. Childs Nerv Syst 15:119–126, discussion 127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Edwards MS, Hudgins RJ, Wilson CB, Levin VA, Wara WM (1988) Pineal region tumors in children. J Neurosurg 68:689–697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Einhorn LH, Donohue J (2002) Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum, vinblastine, and bleomycin combination chemotherapy in disseminated testicular cancer. J Urol 167:928–932, discussion 933PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Endo H, Kumabe T, Jokura H, Tominaga T (2005) Stereotactic radiosurgery followed by whole ventricular irradiation for primary intracranial germinoma of the pineal region. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 48(3):186–190Google Scholar
  25. Eom KY, Kim IH, Park CI, Kim HJ, Kim JH, Kim K, Kim SK, Wang KC, Cho BG, Jung HW, Heo DS, Kang HJ, Shin HY, Ahn HS (2008) Upfront chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy results in more relapses than extended radiotherapy for intracranial germinomas: modification in radiotherapy volume might be needed. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 71:667–671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Felix I, Becker LE (1990) Intracranial germ cell tumors in children: an immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study. Pediatr Neurosurg 16:156–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fossati P, Ricardi U, Orecchia R (2009) Pediatric medulloblastoma: toxicity of current treatment and potential role of proton therapy. Cancer Treat Rev 35(1):79–96Google Scholar
  28. Friedman JA, Lynch JJ, Buckner JC, Scheithauer BW, Raffel C (2001) Management of malignant pineal germ cell tumors with residual mature teratoma. Neurosurgery 48:518–522, discussion 522–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fujimaki T, Matsutani M, Funada N, Kirino T, Takakura K, Nakamura O, Tamura A, Sano K (1994) CT and MRI features of intracranial germ cell tumors. J Neurooncol 19:217–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fuller BG, Kapp DS, Cox R (1994) Radiation therapy of pineal region tumors: 25 new cases and a review of 208 previously reported cases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 28:229–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gay JC, Janco RL, Lukens JN (1985) Systemic metastases in primary intracranial germinoma. Case report and literature review. Cancer 55:2688–2690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ginsberg S, Kirshner J, Reich S, Panasci L, Finkelstein T, Fandrich S, Fitzpatrick A, Shechtman L, Comis R (1981) Systemic chemotherapy for a primary germ cell tumor of the brain: a pharmacokinetic study. Cancer Treat Rep 65:477–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Goldman S, Bouffet E, Fisher PG, Allen JC, Robertson PL, Chuba PJ, Donahue B, Kretschmar CS, Zhou T, Buxton AB, Pollack IF (2015) Phase II Trial Assessing the Ability of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy With or Without Second-Look Surgery to Eliminate Measurable Disease for Nongerminomatous Germ Cell Tumors: A Children’s Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol 1;33(22):2464–2471Google Scholar
  34. Handa H, Yamashita J (1981) Current treatment of pineal tumors (author’s transl). Neurol Med Chir 21:147–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hao S, Li D, Feng J, Wang L, Wu Z, Zhang J, Zhang L (2013) Primary medulla oblongata germinomas: two case reports and review of the literature. World J Surg Oncol 11(1):274. doi: 10.1186/1477-7819-11-274 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hattab EM, Tu PH, Wilson JD, Cheng L (2005) OCT4 immunohistochemistry is superior to placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) in the diagnosis of central nervous system germinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 29:368–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hawkins EP (1990) Pathology of germ cell tumors in children. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 10:165–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hawkins EP, Finegold MJ, Hawkins HK, Krischer JP, Starling KA, Weinberg A (1986) Nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors in children. A review of 89 cases from the Pediatric Oncology Group, 1971–1984. Cancer 58:2579–2584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hoei-Hansen CE, Sehested A, Juhler M, Lau Y-FC, Skakkebaek NE, Laursen H, Rajpert-de Meyts E (2006) New evidence for the origin of intracranial germ cell tumours from primordial germ cells: expression of pluripotency and cell differentiation markers. J Pathol 209(1):25–33. doi: 10.1002/path.1948 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hoffman HJ, Otsubo H, Hendrick EB, Humphreys RP, Drake JM, Becker LE, Greenberg M, Jenkin D (1991) Intracranial germ-cell tumors in children. J Neurosurg 74:545–551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Honecker F, Kersemaekers A-MF, Molier M, Van Weeren PC, Stoop H, De Krijger RR et al (2004) Involvement of E-cadherin and beta-catenin in germ cell tumours and in normal male fetal germ cell development. J Pathol 204(2):167–174. doi: 10.1002/path.1614 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Huo L, Wang X, Allen PK, Wang L, Liao Y, Han Z, Shen L, Tu Q, Zhong M, Zhuang Y, Li J, Hong J (2015) Predictors of long-term survival following postoperative radiochemotherapy for pathologically confirmed suprasellar germ cell tumors. Mol Clin Oncol 3(2):430–434Google Scholar
  43. Iizuka H, Nojima T, Kadoya S (1996) Germinoma of the optic nerve: case report. Noshuyo Byori 13:95–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Imber B, Braunstein S, Banerjee A, Tihan T, Bollen A, Haas-Kogan D, Mueller S (2015) Intracranial nongerminomatous germ cell tumors: treatment strategies and outcomes. Neuro Oncol 17(supp 3)Google Scholar
  45. Itoyama Y, Kochi M, Kuratsu J, Takamura S, Kitano I, Marubayashi T, Uemura S, Ushio Y (1995) Treatment of intracranial nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors producing alpha-fetoprotein. Neurosurgery 36:459–464, discussion 464–456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Iwato M, Tachibana O, Tohma Y, Arakawa Y, Nitta H, Hasegawa M, Yamashita J, Hayashi Y (2000a) Alterations of the INK4a/ARF locus in human intracranial germ cell tumors. Cancer Res 60:2113–2115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Iwato M, Tachibana O, Tohma Y, Nitta H, Hayashi Y, Yamashita J (2000b) Molecular analysis for p53 and mdm2 in intracranial germ cell tumors. Acta Neuropathol 99:21–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jaing TH, Wang HS, Hung IJ, Tseng CK, Yang CP, Hung PC, Lui TN (2002) Intracranial germ cell tumors: a retrospective study of 44 children. Pediatr Neurol 26:369–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jellinger K (1973) Primary intracranial germ cell tumours. Acta Neuropathol 25:291–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jennings CD, Powell DE, Walsh JW, Mortara RH (1985a) Suprasellar germ cell tumor with extracranial metastases. Neurosurgery 16:9–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jennings MT, Gelman R, Hochberg F (1985b) Intracranial germ-cell tumors: natural history and pathogenesis. J Neurosurg 63:155–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jensen AW, Laack NN, Buckner JC, Schomberg PJ, Wetmore CJ, Brown PD (2010) Long-term follow-up of dose-adapted and reduced-field radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy for central nervous system germinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 77(5):1449–1456. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.06.077
  53. Jooma R, Kendall BE (1983) Diagnosis and management of pineal tumors. J Neurosurg 58:654–665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kamakura Y, Hasegawa M, Minamoto T, Yamashita J, Fujisawa H (2006) C-kit gene mutation: common and widely distributed in intracranial germinomas. J Neurosurg 104(3 Suppl):173–180. doi: 10.3171/ped.2006.104.3.173 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kang JK, Jeun SS, Hong YK, Park CK, Son BC, Lee IW, Kim MC (1998) Experience with pineal region tumors. Childs Nerv Syst 14:63–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kellie SJ, Boyce H, Dunkel IJ, Diez B, Rosenblum M, Brualdi L, Finlay JL (2004a) Intensive cisplatin and cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy without radiotherapy for intracranial germinomas: failure of a primary chemotherapy approach. Pediatr Blood Cancer 43:126–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kellie SJ, Boyce H, Dunkel IJ, Diez B, Rosenblum M, Brualdi L, Finlay JL (2004b) Primary chemotherapy for intracranial nongerminomatous germ cell tumors: results of the second international CNS germ cell study group protocol. J Clin Oncol 22:846–853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kobayashi T, Yoshida J, Ishiyama J, Noda S, Kito A, Kida Y (1989) Combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide for malignant intracranial germ-cell tumors. An experimental and clinical study. J Neurosurg 70:676–681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kretschmar C, Kleinberg L, Greenberg M, Burger P, Holmes E, Wharam M (2007) Pre-radiation chemotherapy with response-based radiation therapy in children with central nervous system germ cell tumors: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer 48:285–291PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lapin V, Ebels I (1981) The role of the pineal gland in neuroendocrine control mechanisms of neoplastic growth. J Neural Transm 50:275–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lemos JA, Barbieri-Neto J, Casartelli C (1998) Primary intracranial germ cell tumors without an isochromosome 12p. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 100:124–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lin IJ, Shu SG, Chu HY, Chi CS (1997) Primary intracranial germ-cell tumor in children. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 60:259–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Loveland KL, Schlatt S (1997) Stem cell factor and c-kit in the mammalian testis: lessons originating from Mother Nature’s gene knockouts. J Endocrinol 153:337–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, Cavenee WK, Burger PC, Jouvet A, Scheithauer BW, Kleihues P (2007) The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Acta Neuropathol 114(2):97–109Google Scholar
  65. MacDonald SM, Trofimov A, Safai S, Adams J, Fullerton B, Ebb D, Tarbell NJ, Yock TI (2011) Proton radiotherapy for pediatric central nervous system germ cell tumors: early clinical outcomes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 79(1):121–129 Google Scholar
  66. Madden J, Foreman NK, Liu AK (2009) Germ cell tumors of the brainstem: report on two cases with pulmonary complications and a review of the literature. J Neurooncol 93(3):405–408. doi: 10.1007/s11060-008-9780-5 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mailhot Vega RB, Kim J, Bussiere M, Hattangadi J, Hollander A, Michalski J, Tarbell NJ, Yock T, MacDonald SM (2013) Cost effectiveness of proton therapy compared with photon therapy in the management of pediatric medulloblastoma. Cancer 119:4299–4307Google Scholar
  68. Matsutani M (2008) Treatment of intracranial germ cell tumors: the second phase II study of Japanese GCT Study Group. In: 13th International Symposium on Pediatric Neuro-Oncology. Chicago. p 420Google Scholar
  69. Matsutani M, Sano K, Takakura K, Fujimaki T, Nakamura O, Funata N, Seto T (1997) Primary intracranial germ cell tumors: a clinical analysis of 153 histologically verified cases. J Neurosurg 86:446–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Matsutani M, Sano K, Takakura K, Fujimaki T, Nakamura O (1998) Combined treatment with chemotherapy and radiation therapy for intracranial germ cell tumors. Childs Nerv Syst 14:59–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mei K(1), Liu A, Allan RW, Wang P, Lane Z, Abel TW, Wei L, Cheng H, Guo S, Peng Y, Rakheja D, Wang M, Ma J, Rodriguez MM, Li J, Cao D (2009) Diagnostic utility of SALL4 in primary germ cell tumors of the central nervous system: a study of 77 cases. Mod Pathol 22(12):1628–1636Google Scholar
  72. Miyanohara O, Takeshima H, Kaji M, Hirano H, Sawamura Y, Kochi M, Kuratsu J (2002) Diagnostic significance of soluble c-kit in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with germ cell tumors. J Neurosurg 97:177–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Nakajima H, Iwai Y, Yamanaka K, Yasui T, Kishi H (2000) Primary intracranial germinoma in the medulla oblongata. Surg Neurol 53:448–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Nakase H, Ohnishi H, Touho H, Karasawa J, Tsunoda S (1994) Cerebellar primary germ-cell tumor in a young boy. Brain Dev 16:396–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nichols CR (1996) Ifosfamide in the treatment of germ cell tumors. Semin Oncol 23:65–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Nishizaki T, Kajiwara K, Adachi N, Tsuha M, Nakayama H, Ohshita N, Ikeda N, Ito H, Suzuki M (2001) Detection of craniospinal dissemination of intracranial germ cell tumours based on serum and cerebrospinal fluid levels of tumour markers. J Clin Neurosci 8:27–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ogawa K, Toita T, Nakamura K, Uno T, Onishi H, Itami J, Shikama N, Saeki N, Yoshii Y, Murayama S (2003) Treatment and prognosis of patients with intracranial nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors: a multiinstitutional retrospective analysis of 41 patients. Cancer 98:369–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Oi S, Matsumoto S (1992) Controversy pertaining to therapeutic modalities for tumors of the pineal region: a worldwide survey of different patient populations. Childs Nerv Syst 8:332–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Oi S, Matsuzawa K, Choi JU, Kim DS, Kang JK, Cho BK (1998) Identical characteristics of the patient populations with pineal region tumors in Japan and in Korea and therapeutic modalities. Childs Nerv Syst 14:36–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Okada Y, Nishikawa R, Matsutani M, Louis DN (2002) Hypomethylated X chromosome gain and rare isochromosome 12p in diverse intracranial germ cell tumors. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 61:531–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Okochi Y, Nihashi T, Fujii M, Kato K, Okada Y, Ando Y, Maesawa S, Takebayashi S, Wakabayashi T, Naganawa S (2014) Clinical use of (11)C-methionine and (18)F-FDG-PET for germinoma in central nervous system. Ann Nucl Med 28(2):94–102. doi: 10.1007/s12149-013-0787-4
  82. Ono N, Kakegawa T, Zama A, Nakamura M, Inoue HK, Tamura M, Wakao T, Uki J, Takeda F, Kurihara H et al (1994) Factors affecting functional prognosis in survivors of primary central nervous system germinal tumors. Surg Neurol 41:9–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Osada T, Fujimaki T, Takamizawa M, Tsuno NH, Kirino T, Shibata Y (2001) Dendritic cells activate antitumor immunity for malignant intracranial germ cell tumor: a case report. Jpn J Clin Oncol 31:403–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ostrom QT, Gittleman H, Liao P, Rouse C, Chen Y, Dowling J et al (2014) CBTRUS statistical report: primary brain and central nervous system tumors diagnosed in the United States in 2007–2011. Neuro Oncol 16(Suppl 4):iv1–iv63. doi: 10.1093/neuonc/nou223 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Osuka S, Tsuboi K, Takano S, Ishikawa E, Matsushita A, Tokuuye K, Akine Y, Matsumura A (2007) Long-term outcome of patients with intracranial germinoma. J Neurooncol 83:71–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Packer RJ, Cohen BH, Cooney K (2000) Intracranial germ cell tumors. Oncologist 5:312–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Park J, Park Y, Lee SU, Kim T, Choi Y-K, Kim J-Y (2015) Differential dosimetric benefit of proton beam therapy over intensity modulated radiotherapy for a variety of targets in patients with intracranial germ cell tumors Radiation Oncology 10:135Google Scholar
  88. Pinkerton CR, Broadbent V, Horwich A, Levitt J, McElwain TJ, Meller ST, Mott M, Oakhill A, Pritchard J (1990) ‘JEB’–a carboplatin based regimen for malignant germ cell tumours in children. Br J Cancer 62:257–262PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pollack IF (2012) Surgical options for pineal region tumors. World Neurosurg 77(2):302–303. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2011.06.020
  90. Regis J, Bouillot P, Rouby-Volot F, Figarella-Branger D, Dufour H, Peragut JC (1996) Pineal region tumors and the role of stereotactic biopsy: review of the mortality, morbidity, and diagnostic rates in 370 cases. Neurosurgery 39:907–912, discussion 912–904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Rickert CH, Simon R, Bergmann M, Dockhorn-Dworniczak B, Paulus W (2000) Comparative genomic hybridization in pineal germ cell tumors. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 59:815–821PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Robertson PL, DaRosso RC, Allen JC (1997) Improved prognosis of intracranial non-germinoma germ cell tumors with multimodality therapy. J Neurooncol 32:71–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rogers SJ, Mosleh-Shirazi MA, Saran FH (2005) Radiotherapy of localised intracranial germinoma: time to sever historical ties? Lancet Oncol 6:509–519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rosenblum MK, Nakazato Y, Matsutani M (2007) Germ cell tumors. In: Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, Cavenee WK (eds) World Health Organization classification of tumours. Pathology and genetics of tumours of the central nervous system. IARC Press, Lyon, pp 197–204Google Scholar
  95. Saitoh M, Tamaki N, Kokunai T, Matsumoto S (1991) Clinico-biological behavior of germ-cell tumors. Childs Nerv Syst 7:246–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Salzman KL, Rojiani AM, Buatti J, Quisling RG, Marcus RB Jr, Maria BL, Mickle JP, Kedar A (1997) Primary intracranial germ cell tumors: clinicopathologic review of 32 cases. Pediatr Pathol Lab Med 17:713–727PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sands SA, Kellie SJ, Davidow AL, Diez B, Villablanca J, Weiner HL, Pietanza MC, Balmaceda C, Finlay JL (2001) Long-term quality of life and neuropsychologic functioning for patients with CNS germ-cell tumors: from the First International CNS Germ-Cell Tumor Study. Neuro Oncol 3:174–183PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Sano K, Matsutani M, Seto T (1989) So-called intracranial germ cell tumours: personal experiences and a theory of their pathogenesis. Neurol Res 11:118–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sawamura Y, de Tribolet N, Ishii N, Abe H (1997) Management of primary intracranial germinomas: diagnostic surgery or radical resection? J Neurosurg 87:262–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sawamura Y, Ikeda J, Shirato H, Tada M, Abe H (1998a) Germ cell tumours of the central nervous system: treatment consideration based on 111 cases and their long-term clinical outcomes. Eur J Cancer 34:104–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sawamura Y, Kato T, Ikeda J, Murata J, Tada M, Shirato H (1998b) Teratomas of the central nervous system: treatment considerations based on 34 cases. J Neurosurg 89:728–737PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sawamura Y, Shirato H, Ikeda J, Tada M, Ishii N, Kato T, Abe H, Fujieda K (1998c) Induction chemotherapy followed by reduced-volume radiation therapy for newly diagnosed central nervous system germinoma. J Neurosurg 88:66–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Schild SE, Haddock MG, Scheithauer BW, Marks LB, Norman MG, Burger PC, Wong WW, Lyons MK, Schomberg PJ (1996) Nongerminomatous germ cell tumors of the brain. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 36:557–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Schoenfeld A, Haas-Kogan DA, Molinaro A, Banerjee A, Nicolaides T, Tihan T,Bollen AW, Gupta N, Mueller S (2014) Pure germinomas of the central nervous system: treatment strategies and outcomes. J Neurooncol 120(3):643–649Google Scholar
  105. Shibamoto Y, Oda Y, Yamashita J, Takahashi M, Kikuchi H, Abe M (1994a) The role of cerebrospinal fluid cytology in radiotherapy planning for intracranial germinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 29:1089–1094PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Shibamoto Y, Takahashi M, Abe M (1994b) Reduction of the radiation dose for intracranial germinoma: a prospective study. Br J Cancer 70:984–989PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Shirato H, Nishio M, Sawamura Y, Myohjin M, Kitahara T, Nishioka T, Mizutani Y, Abe H, Miyasaka K (1997) Analysis of long-term treatment of intracranial germinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 37:511–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Snow GE, Kasper AC, Busch AM, Schwarz E, Ewings KE, Bee T, Spinella MJ, Dmitrovsky E, Freemantle SJ (2009) Wnt pathway reprogramming during human embryonal carcinoma differentiation and potential for therapeutic targeting. BMC Cancer 9:383. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-9-383
  109. Somma AD, Bronzoni C, Guadagno E, Solari D, Dell’aversana GO, De Caro BS, Cappabianca P (2014) The “extended” endoscopic endonasal approach for the removal of a mixed intrasuprasellar germinoma: technical case report. Surg Neurol Int 5:14. doi: 10.4103/2152-7806.126043
  110. Steinbok P (2001) Management of malignant pineal germ cell tumors with residual mature teratoma. Neurosurgery 49:1271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Steinbok P, Cochrane DD (2001) Pineal region and intracranial germ cell tumors. In: McLone DG (ed) Pediatric neurosurgery: surgery of the developing nervous system. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 711–724Google Scholar
  112. Strojan P, Zadravec LZ, Anzic J, Korenjak R, Jereb B (2006) The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of childhood intracranial germinoma: long-term survival and late effects. Pediatr Blood Cancer 47:77–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sukov WR, Cheville JC, Giannini C, Carlson AW, Shearer BM, Sinnwell JP, Ketterling RP (2010) Isochromosome 12p and polysomy 12 in primary central nervous system germ cell tumors: frequency and association with clinicopathologic features. Hum Pathol 41(2):232–238. doi: 10.1016/j.humpath.2009.07.017 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Tada T, Takizawa T, Nakazato F, Kobayashi S, Koike K, Oguchi M, Ishii E, Amano Y (1999) Treatment of intracranial nongerminomatous germ-cell tumor by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell rescue. J Neurooncol 44:71–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Takei Y, Pearl GS (1981) Ultrastructural study of intracranial yolk sac tumor: with special reference to the oncologic phylogeny of germ cell tumors. Cancer 48:2038–2046PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Tan C, Scotting PJ (2013) Stem cell research points the way to the cell of origin for intracranial germ cell tumours. J Pathol 229(1):4–11. doi: 10.1002/path.4098 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Teilum G (1976) Special tumors of ovary and testis and related extragonadal lesions: comparative pathology and histological identification. J.B. Lippincott, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  118. Tseng KY, Ma HI, Liu WH, Tang CT (2012) Endoscopic supracerebellar infratentorial retropineal approach for tumor resection. World Neurosurg 77(2):399.E1–E4. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2011.05.035
  119. Uematsu Y, Tsuura Y, Miyamoto K, Itakura T, Hayashi S, Komai N (1992) The recurrence of primary intracranial germinomas. Special reference to germinoma with STGC (syncytiotrophoblastic giant cell). J Neurooncol 13:247–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wang L, Yamaguchi S, Burstein MD, Terashima K, Chang K, Ng H-K et al (2014) Novel somatic and germ line mutations in intracranial germ cell tumours. Nature 511(7508):241–245. doi: 10.1038/nature13296 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Weiner HL, Lichtenbaum RA, Wisoff JH, Snow RB, Souweidane MM, Bruce JN, Finlay JL (2002) Delayed surgical resection of central nervous system germ cell tumors. Neurosurgery 50:727–733, discussion 733–724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wolden SL, Wara WM, Larson DA, Prados MD, Edwards MS, Sneed PK (1995) Radiation therapy for primary intracranial germ-cell tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 32:943–949PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Yoshida J, Sugita K, Kobayashi T, Takakura K, Shitara N, Matsutani M, Tanaka R, Nagai H, Yamada H, Yamashita J et al (1993) Prognosis of intracranial germ cell tumours: effectiveness of chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide (CDDP and VP-16). Acta Neurochir 120:111–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Yu IT, Griffin CA, Phillips PC, Strauss LC, Perlman EJ (1995) Numerical sex chromosomal abnormalities in pineal teratomas by cytogenetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Lab Invest 72:419–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Zimmerman RA, Bilaniuk LT (1982) Age-related incidence of pineal calcification detected by computed tomography. Radiology 142:659–662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Zynger DL, Everton MJ, Dimov ND, Chou PM, Yang XJ (2008) Expression of glypican 3 in ovarian and extragonadal germ cell tumors. Am J Clin Pathol 130(2):224–230. doi: 10.1309/8DN7DQRDFB4QNH3N PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steve Braunstein
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sean M. McBride
    • 2
  • Daphne A. Haas-Kogan
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Radiation OncologyUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Radiation OncologyMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Radiation OncologyBrigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, & Boston Children’s HospitalBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations