Advertisement

Chemotherapy

  • Theodore NicolaidesEmail author
  • Biljana Horn
  • Anuradha Banerjee
Chapter
Part of the Pediatric Oncology book series (PEDIATRICO)

Abstract

Chemotherapy is increasingly used in the multimodal management of childhood brain tumors, with the therapeutic goals of optimizing survival and reducing radiation-related morbidity. The numerous chemotherapy treatment protocols for pediatric brain tumors reflect the extreme heterogeneity of these neoplasms. For example, in the setting of average-risk medulloblastoma and germinoma, which have high cure rates with radiation treatment alone, chemotherapy is used to reduce radiation doses, yet maintain high cure rates. For infants with malignant brain tumors, who are particularly vulnerable to radiation-related morbidity, chemotherapy has been used to delay radiation treatment. Similarly, in the setting of unresectable, low-grade astrocytoma, chemotherapy can provide prolonged disease stabilization, perhaps allowing for delay or deferral of radiation.

Keywords

Central Nervous System Tumor Malignant Brain Tumor Pediatric Brain Tumor Stem Cell Rescue Childhood Brain Tumor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Allen JC, Bosl G, Walker R (1985) Chemotherapy trials in recurrent primary intracranial germ cell tumors. J Neurooncol 3:147–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antonios JP, Everson RG, Liau LM (2015) Dendritic cell immunotherapy for brain tumors. J Neurooncol 123:425–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashley DM, Meier L, Kerby T, Zalduondo FM, Friedman HS, Gajjar A, Kun L, Duffner PK, Smith S, Longee D (1996) Response of recurrent medulloblastoma to low-dose oral etoposide. J Clin Oncol 14:1922–1927PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashley DM, Merchant TE, Strother D, Zhou T, Duffner P, Burger PC, Miller DC, Lyon N, Bonner MJ, Msall M, Buxton A, Geyer R, Kun LE, Coleman L, Pollack IF (2012) Induction chemotherapy and conformal radiation therapy for very young children with nonmetastatic medulloblastoma: Children’s Oncology Group study P9934. J Clin Oncol 30:3181–3186PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balis FM, Holcenberg JS, Blaney SM (2002) General principles of chemotherapy. In: Pizzo PA, Poplack DG (eds) Principles and practice of pediatric oncology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 237–308Google Scholar
  6. Bashir R, Hochberg FH, Linggood RM, Hottleman K (1988) Pre-irradiation internal carotid artery BCNU in treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurosurg 68:917–919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bautista F, Paci A, Minard-Colin V, Dufour C, Grill J, Lacroix L, Varlet P, Valteau-Couanet D, Geoerger B (2014) Vemurafenib in pediatric patients with BRAFV600E mutated high-grade gliomas. Pediatr Blood Cancer 61:1101–1103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bertolone SJ, Baum ES, Krivit W, Hammond GD (1989) A phase II study of cisplatin therapy in recurrent childhood brain tumors. A report from the Childrens Cancer Study Group. J Neurooncol 7:5–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bicknell R, Harris AL (1996) Mechanisms and therapeutic implications of angiogenesis. Curr Opin Oncol 8:60–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bigner DD, Brown MT, Friedman AH, Coleman RE, Akabani G, Friedman HS, Thorstad WL, McLendon RE, Bigner SH, Zhao XG, Pegram CN, Wikstrand CJ, Herndon JE II, Vick NA, Paleologos N, Cokgor I, Provenzale JM, Zalutsky MR (1998) Iodine-131-labeled antitenascin monoclonal antibody 81C6 treatment of patients with recurrent malignant gliomas: phase I trial results. J Clin Oncol 16:2202–2212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Blaney SM, Boyett J, Friedman H, Gajjar A, Geyer R, Horowtiz M, Hunt D, Kieran M, Kun L, Packer R, Phillips P, Pollack IF, Prados M, Heideman R (2005) Phase I clinical trial of mafosfamide in infants and children aged 3 years or younger with newly diagnosed embryonal tumors: a pediatric brain tumor consortium study (PBTC-001). J Clin Oncol 23:525–531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blaney SM, Kocak M, Gajjar A, Chintagumpala M, Merchant T, Kieran M, Pollack IF, Gururangan S, Geyer R, Phillips P, McLendon RE, Packer R, Goldman S, Banerjee A, Heideman R, Boyett JM, Kun L (2012) Pilot study of systemic and intrathecal mafosfamide followed by conformal radiation for infants with intracranial central nervous system tumors: a pediatric brain tumor consortium study (PBTC-001). J Neurooncol 109:565–571PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bobo RH, Laske DW, Akbasak A, Morrison PF, Dedrick RL, Oldfield EH (1994) Convection-enhanced delivery of macromolecules in the brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:2076–2080PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bode U, Zimmermann M, Moser O, Rutkowski M, Warmuth-Metz M, Pietsch T, Kortmann RD, Faldum A, Fleischhack G (2014) Treatment of recurrent primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) in children and adolescents with high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and stem cell support: results of the HITREZ 97 multicentre trial. J Neurooncol 120:635–642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bouffet E, Foreman N (1999) Chemotherapy for intracranial ependymomas. Childs Nerv Syst 15:563–570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bouffet E, Khelfaoui F, Philip I, Biron P, Brunat-Mentigny M, Philip T (1997) High-dose carmustine for high-grade gliomas in childhood. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 39:376–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bouffet E, Raquin M, Doz F, Gentet JC, Rodary C, Demeocq F, Chastagner P, Lutz P, Hartmann O, Kalifa C (2000) Radiotherapy followed by high dose busulfan and thiotepa: a prospective assessment of high dose chemotherapy in children with diffuse pontine gliomas. Cancer 88:685–692PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bouffet E, Hargrave D, Cairney E, Garre ML, Slave I, Baruchel S (2002) Weekly vinblastine for recurrent/progressive low grade gliomas [abstract]. Proceedings of the International Society of Pediatric Oncology SIOP XXXIV. Med Pediatr Oncol 39:229Google Scholar
  19. Bouffet E, Jakacki R, Goldman S, Hargrave D, Hawkins C, Shroff M, Hukin J, Bartels U, Foreman N, Kellie S, Hilden J, Etzl M, Wilson B, Stephens D, Tabori U, Baruchel S (2012) Phase II study of weekly vinblastine in recurrent or refractory pediatric low-grade glioma. J Clin Oncol 30(12):1358–1363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brem H, Piantadosi S, Burger PC, Walker M, Selker R, Vick NA, Black K, Sisti M, Brem S, Mohr G et al (1995) Placebocontrolled trial of safety and efficacy of intraoperative controlled delivery by biodegradable polymers of chemotherapy for recurrent gliomas. The Polymer-brain Tumor Treatment Group. Lancet 345:1008–1012PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Broniscer A, Nicolaides TP, Dunkel IJ, Gardner SL, Johnson J Jr, Allen JC, Sposto R, Finlay JL (2004) High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell rescue in the treatment of patients with recurrent non-cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer 42:261–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Broniscer A, Gururangan S, MacDonald TJ, Goldman S, Packer RJ, Stewart CF, Wallace D, Danks MK, Friedman HS, Poussaint TY, Kun LE, Boyett JM, Gajjar A (2007) Phase I trial of single-dose temozolomide and continuous administration of O6-benzylguanine in children with brain tumors: a pediatric brain tumor consortium report. Clin Cancer Res 13:6712–6718PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Burger PC, Kamenar E, Schold SC, Fay JW, Phillips GL, Herzig GP (1981) Encephalomyelopathy following high-dose BCNU therapy. Cancer 48:1318–1327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Busca A, Miniero R, Besenzon L, Cordero di Montezemolo L, Cenni M, Fagioli F, Sandri A, Vassallo E, Ricardi U, Madon E (1997) Etoposide-containing regimens with autologous bone marrow transplantation in children with malignant brain tumors. Childs Nerv Syst 13:572–577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Byrne J, Mulvihill JJ, Myers MH, Connelly RR, Naughton MD, Krauss MR, Steinhorn SC, Hassinger DD, Austin DF, Bragg K et al (1987) Effects of treatment on fertility in long-term survivors of childhood or adolescent cancer. N Engl J Med 317:1315–1321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chamberlain MC (2001) Recurrent intracranial ependymoma in children: salvage therapy with oral etoposide. Pediatr Neurol 24:117–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chamberlain MC, Kormanik PA (1997) Chronic oral VP-16 for recurrent medulloblastoma. Pediatr Neurol 17:230–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chauncey TR (2001) Drug resistance mechanisms in acute leukemia. Curr Opin Oncol 13:21–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chi SN, Gardner SL, Levy AS, Knopp EA, Miller DC, Wisoff JH, Weiner HL, Finlay JL (2004) Feasibility and response to induction chemotherapy intensified with high-dose methotrexate for young children with newly diagnosed high-risk disseminated medulloblastoma. J Clin Oncol 22:4881–4887PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chinnaiyan P, Cerna D, Burgan WE, Beam K, Williams ES, Camphausen K, Tofilon PJ (2008) Postradiation sensitization of the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid. Clin Cancer Res 14:5410–5415PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chou PM, Reyes-Mugica M, Barquin N, Yasuda T, Tan X, Tomita T (1995) Multidrug resistance gene expression in childhood medulloblastoma: correlation with clinical outcome and DNA ploidy in 29 patients. Pediatr Neurosurg 23:283–291; discussion 291–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chou PM, Barquin N, Gonzalez-Crussi F, Ridaura Sanz C, Tomita T, Reyes-Mugica M (1996) Ependymomas in children express the multidrug resistance gene: immunohistochemical and molecular biologic study. Pediatr Pathol Lab Med 16:551–561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cohen KJ, Pollack IF, Zhou T, Buxton A, Holmes EJ, Burger PC, Brat DJ, Rosenblum MK, Hamilton RL, Lavey RS, Heideman RL (2011) Temozolomide in the treatment of high-grade gliomas in children: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group. Neuro Oncol 13:317–323PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. D’Amato RJ, Loughnan MS, Flynn E, Folkman J (1994) Thalidomide is an inhibitor of angiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:4082–4085PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dean RL, Emerich DF, Hasler BP, Bartus RT (1999) Cereport (RMP-7) increases carboplatin levels in brain tumors after pretreatment with dexamethasone. Neuro Oncol 1:268–274PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Decleves X, Fajac A, Lehmann-Che J, Tardy M, Mercier C, Hurbain I, Laplanche JL, Bernaudin JF, Scherrmann JM (2002) Molecular and functional MDR1-Pgp and MRPs expression in human glioblastoma multiforme cell lines. Int J Cancer 98:173–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dhall G, Grodman H, Ji L, Sands S, Gardner S, Dunkel IJ, McCowage GB, Diez B, Allen JC, Gopalan A, Cornelius AS, Termuhlen A, Abromowitch M, Sposto R, Finlay JL (2008) Outcome of children less than three years old at diagnosis with non-metastatic medulloblastoma treated with chemotherapy on the “Head Start” I and II protocols. Pediatr Blood Cancer 50:1169–1175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Duffner PK, Horowitz ME, Krischer JP, Friedman HS, Burger PC, Cohen ME, Sanford RA, Mulhern RK, James HE, Freeman CR et al (1993) Postoperative chemotherapy and delayed radiation in children less than three years of age with malignant brain tumors. N Engl J Med 328:1725–1731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Duffner PK, Krischer JP, Horowitz ME, Cohen ME, Burger PC, Friedman HS, Kun LE (1998) Second malignancies in young children with primary brain tumors following treatment with prolonged postoperative chemotherapy and delayed irradiation: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. Ann Neurol 44:313–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Duffner PK, Horowitz ME, Krischer JP, Burger PC, Cohen ME, Sanford RA, Friedman HS, Kun LE (1999) The treatment of malignant brain tumors in infants and very young children: an update of the Pediatric Oncology Group experience. Neuro Oncol 1:152–161PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Duffull SB, Robinson BA (1997) Clinical pharmacokinetics and dose optimisation of carboplatin. Clin Pharmacokinet 33:161–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dunkel IJ, Finlay JL (2002) High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue for brain tumors. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 41:197–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dunkel IJ, Gardner S, Gavin J, Goldman S, Shi W, Finlay J (2010) High-dose carboplatin, thiotepa and etoposide with autologous stem cell rescue for patients with previously irradiated medulloblastoma. Neruo Oncol 12:297–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Eilber F, Giuliano A, Eckardt J, Patterson K, Moseley S, Goodnight J (1987) Adjuvant chemotherapy for osteosarcoma: a randomized prospective trial. J Clin Oncol 5:21–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Einhorn LH (1991) Daily oral etoposide in the treatment of cancer. Semin Oncol 18:43–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Fagioli F, Biasin E, Mastrodicasa L, Sandri A, Ferrero I, Berger M, Vassallo E, Madon E (2004) High-dose thiotepa and etoposide in children with poor-prognosis brain tumors. Cancer 100(10):2215–2221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fangusaro J, Finlay J, Sposto R, Ji L, Saly M, Zacharoulis S, Asgharzadeh S, Abromowitch M, Olshefski R, Halpern S, Dubowy R, Comito M, Diez B, Kellie S, Hukin J, Rosenblum M, Dunkel I, Miller DC, Allen J, Gardner S (2008) Intensive chemotherapy followed by consolidative myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell rescue (AuHCR) in young children with newly diagnosed supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNETs): report of the Head Start I and II experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer 50:312–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fine HA, Figg WD, Jaeckle K, Wen PY, Kyritsis AP, Loeffler JS, Levin VA, Black PM, Kaplan R, Pluda JM, Yung WK (2000) Phase II trial of the antiangiogenic agent thalidomide in patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas. J Clin Oncol 18:708–715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Fine HA, Kim L, Albert PS, Duic JP, Ma H, Zhang W, Tohnya T, Figg WD, Royce C (2007) A phase I trial of lenalidomide in patients with recurrent primary central nervous system tumors. Clin Cancer Res 13:7101–7106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Finlay JL, Boyett JM, Yates AJ, Wisoff JH, Milstein JM, Geyer JR, Bertolone SJ, McGuire P, Cherlow JM, Tefft M et al (1995) Randomized phase III trial in childhood high-grade astrocytoma comparing vincristine, lomustine, and prednisone with the eight-drugs-in-1-day regimen. Childrens Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol 13:112–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Finlay JL, Goldman S, Wong MC, Cairo M, Garvin J, August C, Cohen BH, Stanley P, Zimmerman RA, Bostrom B, Geyer JR, Harris RE, Sanders J, Yates AJ, Boyett JM, Packer RJ (1996) Pilot study of high-dose thiotepa and etoposide with autologous bone marrow rescue in children and young adults with recurrent CNS tumors. The Children’s Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol 14:2495–2503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Finlay J, Dhall G, Boyett J, Dunkel I, Gardner S, Goldman S, Yates A, Rosenblum M, Stanley P, Zimmerman R, Wallace D, Pollack I, Packer R (2008) Myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow rescue in children and adolescents with recurrent malignant astrocytoma: outcome compared with conventional chemotherapy: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer 51:806–811PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fleischhack G, Popping K, Hasan C, Utsch B, Juttner J, Bode U (1998) High dose chemotherapy with thiotepa, carboplatin, VP16 and autologous stem cell transplantation in treatment of malignant brain tumors with poor prognosis. Results of a mono-center pilot study. Klin Padiatr 210:248–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Folkman J (1971) Tumor angiogenesis: therapeutic implications. N Engl J Med 285:1182–1186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fouladi M, Blaney SM, Poussaint TY, Freeman BB 3rd, McLendon R, Fuller C, Adesina AM, Hancock ML, Danks MK, Stewart C, Boyett JM, Gajjar A (2006) Phase II study of oxaliplatin in children with recurrent or refractory medulloblastoma, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors: a pediatric brain tumor consortium study. Cancer 107:2291–2297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Friedman HS, Mahaley MS Jr, Schold SC Jr, Vick NA, Falletta JM, Bullard DE, D’Souza BJ, Khandekar JD, Lew S, Oakes WJ et al (1986) Efficacy of vincristine and cyclophosphamide in the therapy of recurrent medulloblastoma. Neurosurgery 18:335–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Friedman HS, Kokkinakis DM, Pluda J, Friedman AH, Cokgor I, Haglund MM, Ashley DM, Rich J, Dolan ME, Pegg AE, Moschel RC, McLendon RE, Kerby T, Herndon JE, Bigner DD, Schold SC Jr (1998) Phase I trial of O6-benzylguanine for patients undergoing surgery for malignant glioma. J Clin Oncol 16:3570–3575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Friedman HS, Kerby T, Calvert H (2000) Temozolomide and treatment of malignant glioma. Clin Cancer Res 6:2585–2597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Fulton D, Urtasun R, Forsyth P (1996) Phase II study of prolonged oral therapy with etoposide (VP16) for patients with recurrent malignant glioma. J Neurooncol 27:149–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gajjar A, Chintagumpala M, Ashley D, Kellie S, Kun LE, Merchant TE, Woo S, Wheeler G, Ahern V, Krasin MJ, Fouladi M, Broniscer A, Krance R, Hale GA, Stewart CF, Dauser R, Sanford RA, Fuller C, Lau C, Boyett JM, Wallace D, Gilbertson RJ (2006) Risk-adapted craniospinal radiotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and stem-cell rescue in children with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma (St Jude Medulloblastoma-96): long-term results from a prospective, multicentre trial. Lancet Oncol 7:813–820PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gaynon PS, Ettinger LJ, Baum ES, Siegel SE, Krailo MD, Hammond GD (1990) Carboplatin in childhood brain tumors. A Children’s Cancer Study Group Phase II trial. Cancer 66:2465–2469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Geyer JR, Zeltzer PM, Boyett JM, Rorke LB, Stanley P, Albright AL, Wisoff JH, Milstein JM, Allen JC, Finlay JL et al (1994) Survival of infants with primitive neuroectodermal tumors or malignant ependymomas of the CNS treated with eight drugs in 1 day: a report from the Childrens Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol 12:1607–1615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Graff JR, McNulty AM, Hanna KR, Konicek BW, Lynch RL, Bailey SN, Banks C, Capen A, Goode R, Lewis JE, Sams L, Huss KL, Campbell RM, Iversen PW, Neubauer BL, Brown TJ, Musib L, Geeganage S, Thornton D (2005) The protein kinase Cbeta-selective inhibitor, Enzastaurin (LY317615. HCl), suppresses signaling through the AKT pathway, induces apoptosis, and suppresses growth of human colon cancer and glioblastoma xenografts. Cancer Res 65:7462–7469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Graham ML, Herndon JE 2nd, Casey JR, Chaffee S, Ciocci GH, Krischer JP, Kurtzberg J, Laughlin MJ, Longee DC, Olson JF, Paleologus N, Pennington CN, Friedman HS (1997) High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell rescue in patients with recurrent and high-risk pediatric brain tumors. J Clin Oncol 15:1814–1823PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Greenberg ML, Fisher PG, Freeman C, Korones DN, Bernstein M, Friedman H, Blaney S, Hershon L, Zhou T, Chen Z, Kretschmar C (2005) Etoposide, vincristine, and cyclosporin A with standard-dose radiation therapy in newly diagnosed diffuse intrinsic brainstem gliomas: a pediatric oncology group phase I study. Pediatr Blood Cancer 45:644–648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Grill J, Sainte-Rose C, Jouvet A, Gentet JC, Lejars O, Frappaz D, Doz F, Rialland X, Pichon F, Bertozzi AI, Chastagner P, Couanet D, Habrand JL, Raquin MA, Le Deley MC, Kalifa C (2005) Treatment of medulloblastoma with postoperative chemotherapy alone: an SFOP prospective trial in young children. Lancet Oncol 6:573–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Grovas AC, Boyett JM, Lindsley K, Rosenblum M, Yates AJ, Finlay JL (1999) Regimen-related toxicity of myeloablative chemotherapy with BCNU, thiotepa, and etoposide followed by autologous stem cell rescue for children with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme: report from the Children’s Cancer Group. Med Pediatr Oncol 33:83–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gurney JG, Bass JK, Onar-Thomas A, Huang J, Chintagumpala M, Bouffet E, Hassall T, Gururangan S, Heath JA, Kellie S, Cohn R, Fisher MJ, Panandiker AP, Merchant TE, Srinivasan A, Wetmore C, Qaddoumi I, Stewart CF, Armstrong GT, Broniscer A, Gajjar A (2014) Evaluation of amifostine for protection against cisplatin-induced serious hearing loss in children treated for average-risk or high-risk medulloblastoma. Neuro Oncol 16:848–855PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Gururangan S, McLaughlin C, Quinn J, Rich J, Reardon D, Halperin EC, Herndon J 2nd, Fuchs H, George T, Provenzale J, Watral M, McLendon RE, Friedman A, Friedman HS, Kurtzberg J, Vredenbergh J, Martin PL (2003) High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell rescue in children and adults with newly diagnosed pineoblastomas. J Clin Oncol 21:2187–2191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Gururangan S, Fangusaro J, Poussaint TY, McLendon RE, Onar-Thomas A, Wu S, Packer RJ, Banerjee A, Gilbertson RJ, Fahey F, Vajapeyam S, Jakacki R, Gajjar A, Goldman S, Pollack IF, Friedman HS, Boyett JM, Fouladi M, Kun LE (2014) Efficacy of bevacizumab plus irinotecan in children with recurrent low-grade gliomas – a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium study. Neuro Oncol 16:310–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hande KR (1998) Etoposide: four decades of development of a topoisomerase II inhibitor. Eur J Cancer 34:1514–1521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hartmann JT, Lipp HP (2003) Toxicity of platinum compounds. Exp Opin Pharmacother 4:889–901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hegi ME, Diserens AC, Gorlia T, Hamou MF, de Tribolet N, Weller M, Kros JM, Hainfellner JA, Mason W, Mariani L, Bromberg JE, Hau P, Mirimanoff RO, Cairncross JG, Janzer RC, Stupp R (2005) MGMT gene silencing and benefit from temozolomide in glioblastoma. N Engl J Med 352:997–1003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Heideman RL, Douglass EC, Krance RA, Fontanesi J, Langston JA, Sanford RA, Kovnar EH, Ochs J, Kuttesch J, Jenkins JJ et al (1993) High-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow rescue followed by interstitial and external-beam radiotherapy in newly diagnosed pediatric malignant gliomas. J Clin Oncol 11:1458–1465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hochberg FH, Parker LM, Takvorian T, Canellos GP, Zervas NT (1981) High-dose BCNU with autologous bone marrow rescue for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurosurg 54:455–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hofland KF, Hansen S, Sorensen M, Engelholm S, Schultz HP, Muhic A, Grunnet K, Ask A, Costa JC, Kristiansen C, Thomsen C, Poulsen HS, Lassen U (2014) Neoadjuvant bevacizumab and irinotecan versus bevacizumab and temozolomide followed by concomitant chemoradiotherapy in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme: a randomized phase II study. Acta Oncol 53:939–944PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hongeng S, Brent TP, Sanford RA, Li H, Kun LE, Heideman RL (1997) O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase protein levels in pediatric brain tumors. Clin Cancer Res 3:2459–2463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Jaeckle KA, Eyre HJ, Townsend JJ, Schulman S, Knudson HM, Belanich M, Yarosh DB, Bearman SI, Giroux DJ, Schold SC (1998) Correlation of tumor O6 methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase levels with survival of malignant astrocytoma patients treated with bis-chloroethylnitrosourea: a Southwest Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 16:3310–3315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Jaeckle KA, Hess KR, Yung WK, Greenberg H, Fine H, Schiff D, Pollack IF, Kuhn J, Fink K, Mehta M, Cloughesy T, Nicholas MK, Chang S, Prados M (2003) Phase II evaluation of temozolomide and 13-cis-retinoic acid for the treatment of recurrent and progressive malignant glioma: a North American Brain Tumor Consortium study. J Clin Oncol 21:2305–2311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Jakacki RI, Burger PC, Zhou T, Holmes EJ, Kocak M, Onar A, Goldwein J, Mehta M, Packer RJ, Tarbell N, Fitz C, Vezina G, Hilden J, Pollack IF (2012) Outcome of children with metastatic medulloblastoma treated with carboplatin during craniospinal radiotherapy: a Children’s Oncology Group Phase I/II study. J Clin Oncol 30:2648–2653PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Joki T, Heese O, Nikas DC, Bello L, Zhang J, Kraeft SK, Seyfried NT, Abe T, Chen LB, Carroll RS, Black PM (2000) Expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in human glioma and in vitro inhibition by a specific COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398. Cancer Res 60:4926–4931PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Jordan MA (2002) Mechanism of action of antitumor drugs that interact with microtubules and tubulin. Current Medicinal Chemistry. Anti Cancer Agents 2:1–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kalifa C, Hartmann O, Demeocq F, Vassal G, Couanet D, Terrier-Lacombe MJ, Valteau D, Brugieres L, Lemerle J (1992) Highdose busulfan and thiotepa with autologous bone marrow transplantation in childhood malignant brain tumors: a phase II study. Bone Marrow Transplant 9:227–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kellie SJ, Barbaric D, Koopmans P, Earl J, Carr DJ, de Graaf SS (2002) Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of vincristine after bolus intravenous dosing: a surrogate marker of brain penetration. Cancer 94:1815–1820PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kellie SJ, Chaku J, Lockwood LR, O’Regan P, Waters KD, Wong CK (2005) Late magnetic resonance imaging features of leukoencephalopathy in children with central nervous system tumours following high-dose methotrexate and neuraxis radiation therapy. Eur J Cancer 41:1588–1596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kenyon BM, Browne F, D’Amato RJ (1997) Effects of thalidomide and related metabolites in a mouse corneal model of neovascularization. Exp Eye Res 64:971–978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Khatua S, Dhall G, O’Neil S, Jubran R, Villablanca JG, Marachelian A, Nastia A, Lavey R, Olch AJ, Gonzalez I et al (2010) Treatment of primary CNS germinomatous germ cell tumors with chemotherapy prior to reduced dose whole ventricular and local boost irradiation. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2010(55):42–46Google Scholar
  88. Khaw SL, Coleman LT, Downie PA, Heath JA, Ashley DM (2007) Temozolomide in pediatric low-grade glioma. Pediatr Blood Cancer 49:808–811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kieran MW, Turner CD, Rubin JB, Chi SN, Zimmerman MA, Chordas C, Klement G, Laforme A, Gordon A, Thomas A, Neuberg D, Browder T, Folkman J (2005) A feasibility trial of antiangiogenic (metronomic) chemotherapy in pediatric patients with recurrent or progressive cancer. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 27:573–581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Klement G, Baruchel S, Rak J, Man S, Clark K, Hicklin DJ, Bohlen P, Kerbel RS (2000) Continuous low-dose therapy with vinblastine and VEGF receptor-2 antibody induces sustained tumor regression without overt toxicity. J Clin Inv 105:R15–R24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kobrinsky NL, Packer RJ, Boyett JM, Stanley P, Shiminski-Maher T, Allen JC, Garvin JH, Stewart DJ, Finlay JL (1999) Etoposide with or without mannitol for the treatment of recurrent or primarily unresponsive brain tumors: a Children’s Cancer Group Study, CCG-9881. J Neurooncol 45:47–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kortmann RD, Kuhl J, Timmermann B, Mittler U, Urban C, Budach V, Richter E, Willich N, Flentje M, Berthold F, Slavc I, Wolff J, Meisner C, Wiestler O, Sorensen N, Warmuth-Metz M, Bamberg M (2000) Postoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy before radiotherapy as compared to immediate radiotherapy followed by maintenance chemotherapy in the treatment of medulloblastoma in childhood: results of the German prospective randomized trial HIT ‘91. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 46:269–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Krueger DA, Care MM, Holland K, Agricola K, Tudor C, Mangeshkar P, Wilson KA, Byars A, Sahmoud T, Franz DN (2010) Everolimus for subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis. N Engl J Med 363:1801–1811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kuo DJ, Weiner HL, Wisoff J, Miller DC, Knopp EA, Finlay JL (2003) Temozolomide is active in childhood, progressive, unresectable, low-grade gliomas. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 25:372–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kushner BH, Kramer K, Cheung NK (1999) Oral etoposide for refractory and relapsed neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 17:3221–3225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Lafay-Cousin L, Holm S, Qaddoumi I, Nicolin G, Bartels U, Tabori U, Huang A, Bouffet E (2005) Weekly vinblastine in pediatric low-grade glioma patients with carboplatin allergic reaction. Cancer 103:2636–2642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lafay-Cousin L, Sung L, Carret AS, Hukin J, Wilson B, Johnston DL, Zelcer S, Silva M, Odame I, Mpofu C, Strother D, Bouffet E (2008) Carboplatin hypersensitivity reaction in pediatric patients with low-grade glioma: a Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium experience. Cancer 112:892–899PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Larkin J, Chiarion-Sileni V, Gonzalez R, Grob JJ, Cowey CL, Lao CD, Schadendorf D, Dummer R, Smylie M, Rutkowski P, Ferrucci PF, Hill A, Wagstaff J, Carlino MS, Haanen JB, Maio M, Marquez-Rodas I, McArthur GA, Ascierto PA, Long GV, Callahan MK, Postow MA, Grossmann K, Sznol M, Dreno B, Bastholt L, Yang A, Rollin LM, Horak C, Hodi FS, Wolchok JD (2015) Combined nivolumab and ipilimumab or monotherapy in untreated melanoma. N Engl J Med 373:23–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lee DW, Kochenderfer JN, Stetler-Stevenson M, Cui YK, Delbrook C, Feldman SA, Fry TJ, Orentas R, Sabatino M, Shah NN, Steinberg SM, Stroncek D, Tschernia N, Yuan C, Zhang H, Zhang L, Rosenberg SA, Wayne AS, Mackall CL (2015) T cells expressing CD19 chimeric antigen receptors for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children and young adults: a phase 1 dose-escalation trial. Lancet 385:517–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Levin VA, Lamborn K, Wara W, Davis R, Edwards M, Rabbitt J, Malec M, Prados MD (2000) Phase II study of 6-thioguanine, procarbazine, dibromodulcitol, lomustine, and vincristine chemotherapy with radiotherapy for treating malignant glioma in children. Neuro Oncol 2:22–28PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Link MP, Goorin AM, Miser AW, Green AA, Pratt CB, Belasco JB, Pritchard J, Malpas JS, Baker AR, Kirkpatrick JA et al (1986) The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on relapse-free survival in patients with osteosarcoma of the extremity. N Engl J Med 314:1600–1606PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Longee DC, Friedman HS, Albright RE Jr, Burger PC, Oakes WJ, Moore JO, Schold SC Jr (1990) Treatment of patients with recurrent gliomas with cyclophosphamide and vincristine. J Neurosurg 72:583–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mahaley MS Jr, Hipp SW, Dropcho EJ, Bertsch L, Cush S, Tirey T, Gillespie GY (1989) Intracarotid cisplatin chemotherapy for recurrent gliomas. J Neurosurg 70:371–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Mahoney DH Jr, Strother D, Camitta B, Bowen T, Ghim T, Pick T, Wall D, Yu L, Shuster JJ, Friedman H (1996) High-dose melphalan and cyclophosphamide with autologous bone marrow rescue for recurrent/progressive malignant brain tumors in children: a pilot pediatric oncology group study. J Clin Oncol 14:382–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Mahoney DH Jr, Cohen ME, Friedman HS, Kepner JL, Gemer L, Langston JW, James HE, Duffner PK, Kun LE (2000) Carboplatin is effective therapy for young children with progressive optic pathway tumors: a Pediatric Oncology Group phase II study. Neuro Oncol 2:213–220PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. Mason WP, Goldman S, Yates AJ, Boyett J, Li H, Finlay JL (1998a) Survival following intensive chemotherapy with bone marrow reconstitution for children with recurrent intracranial ependymoma–a report of the Children’s Cancer Group. J Neurooncol 37:135–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Mason WP, Grovas A, Halpern S, Dunkel IJ, Garvin J, Heller G, Rosenblum M, Gardner S, Lyden D, Sands S, Puccetti D, Lindsley K, Merchant TE, O’Malley B, Bayer L, Petriccione MM, Allen J, Finlay JL (1998b) Intensive chemotherapy and bone marrow rescue for young children with newly diagnosed malignant brain tumors. J Clin Oncol 16:210–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Massimino M, Gandola L, Luksch R, Spreafico F, Riva D, Solero C, Giangaspero F, Locatelli F, Podda M, Bozzi F, Pignoli E, Collini P, Cefalo G, Zecca M, Casanova M, Ferrari A, Terenziani M, Meazza C, Polastri D, Scaramuzza D, Ravagnani F, Fossati-Bellani F (2005) Sequential chemotherapy, highdose thiotepa, circulating progenitor cell rescue, and radiotherapy for childhood high-grade glioma. Neuro Oncol 7:41–48PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Mathew P, Ribeiro RC, Sonnichsen D, Relling M, Pratt C, Mahmoud H, Bowman L, Meyer W, Avery L, Crist W (1994) Phase I study of oral etoposide in children with refractory solid tumors. J Clin Oncol 12:1452–1457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Matthay KK, Villablanca JG, Seeger RC, Stram DO, Harris RE, Ramsay NK, Swift P, Shimada H, Black CT, Brodeur GM, Gerbing RB, Reynolds CP (1999) Treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with intensive chemotherapy, radiotherapy, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and 13-cis-retinoic acid. Child Cancer Group N Engl J Med 341:1165–1173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Middleton MR, Margison GP (2003) Improvement of chemotherapy efficacy by inactivation of a DNA-repair pathway. Lancet Oncol 4:37–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Miettinen S, Laurikainen E, Johansson R, Minn H, Laurell G, Salmi TT (1997) Radiotherapy enhanced ototoxicity of cisplatin in children. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 529:90–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Mikaeloff Y, Raquin MA, Lellouch-Tubiana A, Terrier-Lacombe MJ, Zerah M, Bulteau C, Habrand JL, Kalifa C (1998) Primitive cerebral neuroectodermal tumors excluding medulloblastomas: a retrospective study of 30 cases. Pediatr Neurosurg 29:170–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Modak S, Gardner S, Dunkel IJ, Balmaceda C, Rosenblum MK, Miller DC, Halpern S, Finlay JL (2004) Thiotepa-based high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell rescue in patients with recurrent or progressive CNS germ cell tumors. J Clin Oncol 22:1934–1943PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Mukherjee P, Das SK (1990) Antiproliferative action of retinoic acid in cultured human brain tumour cells Gl-As-14(S). Cancer Lett 52:83–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Mulhern RK, Palmer SL, Reddick WE, Glass JO, Kun LE, Taylor J, Langston J, Gajjar A (2001) Risks of young age for selected neurocognitive deficits in medulloblastoma are associated with white matter loss. J Clin Oncol 19:472–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Needle MN, Molloy PT, Geyer JR, Herman-Liu A, Belasco JB, Goldwein JW, Sutton L, Phillips PC (1997) Phase II study of daily oral etoposide in children with recurrent brain tumors and other solid tumors. Med Pediatr Oncol 29:28–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Neuwelt EA, Diehl JT, Vu LH, Hill SA, Michael AJ, Frenkel EP (1981) Monitoring of methotrexate delivery in patients with malignant brain tumors after osmotic blood–brain barrier disruption. Ann Intern Med 94:449–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Neuwelt EA, Specht HD, Howieson J, Haines JE, Bennett MJ, Hill SA, Frenkel EP (1983) Osmotic blood–brain barrier modification: clinical documentation by enhanced CT scanning and/or radionuclide brain scanning. AJR Am J Roentgenol 141:829–835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Newlands ES, Stevens MF, Wedge SR, Wheelhouse RT, Brock C (1997) Temozolomide: a review of its discovery, chemical properties, pre-clinical development and clinical trials. Cancer Treat Rev 23:35–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Newton HB, Page MA, Junck L, Greenberg HS (1989) Intraarterial cisplatin for the treatment of malignant gliomas. J Neurooncol 7:39–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Newton HB, Turowski RC, Stroup TJ, McCoy LK (1999) Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and pharmacotherapy of patients with primary brain tumors. Ann Pharmacother 33:816–832PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Nicholson HS, Krailo M, Ames MM, Seibel NL, Reid JM, Liu-Mares W, Vezina LG, Ettinger AG, Reaman GH (1998) Phase I study of temozolomide in children and adolescents with recurrent solid tumors: a report from the Children’s Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol 16:3037–3043PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Nicolao P, Giometto B (2003) Neurological toxicity of ifosfamide. Oncology 65(Suppl 2):11–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Ortega JA, Rivard GE, Isaacs H, Hittle RE, Hays DM, Pike MC, Karon MR (1975) The influence of chemotherapy on the prognosis of rhabdomyosarcoma. Med Pediatr Oncol 1:227–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Packer RJ (2002) Radiation-induced neurocognitive decline: the risks and benefits of reducing the amount of wholebrain irradiation. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2:131–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Packer RJ, Sutton LN, Goldwein JW, Perilongo G, Bunin G, Ryan J, Cohen BH, D’Angio G, Kramer ED, Zimmerman RA et al (1991) Improved survival with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of medulloblastoma. J Neurosurg 74:433–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Packer RJ, Sutton LN, Elterman R, Lange B, Goldwein J, Nicholson HS, Mulne L, Boyett J, D’Angio G, Wechsler-Jentzsch K et al (1994) Outcome for children with medulloblastoma treated with radiation and cisplatin, CCNU, and vincristine chemotherapy. J Neurosurg 81:690–698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Packer RJ, Ater J, Allen J, Phillips P, Geyer R, Nicholson HS, Jakacki R, Kurczynski E, Needle M, Finlay J, Reaman G, Boyett JM (1997) Carboplatin and vincristine chemotherapy for children with newly diagnosed progressive lowgrade gliomas. J Neurosurg 86:747–754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Packer RJ, Goldwein J, Nicholson HS, Vezina LG, Allen JC, Ris MD, Muraszko K, Rorke LB, Wara WM, Cohen BH, Boyett JM (1999) Treatment of children with medulloblastomas with reduced-dose craniospinal radiation therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy: a Children’s Cancer Group Study. J Clin Oncol 17:2127–2136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Packer RJ, Gajjar A, Vezina G, Rorke-Adams L, Burger PC, Robertson PL, Bayer L, LaFond D, Donahue BR, Marymont MH et al (2006) Phase III study of craniospinal radiation therapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy for newly diagnosed average-risk medulloblastoma. J Clin Oncol 24:4202–4208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Paku S (1998) Current concepts of tumor-induced angiogenesis. Pathol Oncol Res 4:62–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Papadakis V, Dunkel IJ, Cramer LD, Kramer E, Papadopoulos E, Goldman S, Packer RJ, Willoughby M, Baker D, Garvin J, Strandjord S, Coccia P, Kaplan AM, Klemperer M, Finlay JL (2000) High-dose carmustine, thiotepa and etoposide followed by autologous bone marrow rescue for the treatment of high risk central nervous system tumors. Bone Marrow Transplant 26:153–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Papadopoulos KP, Garvin JH, Fetell M, Vahdat LT, Garrett TJ, Savage DG, Balmaceda C, Bruce J, Sisti M, Isaacson S, De LaPaz R, Hawks R, Bagiella E, Antman KH, Hesdorffer CS (1998) High-dose thiotepa and etoposide-based regimens with autologous hematopoietic support for high-risk or recurrent CNS tumors in children and adults. Bone Marrow Transplant 22:661–667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Pegg AE (1990) Mammalian O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase: regulation and importance in response to alkylating carcinogenic and therapeutic agents. Cancer Res 50:6119–6129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Pegg AE, Byers TL (1992) Repair of DNA containing O6-alkylguanine. FASEB J 6:2302–2310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Perry JR, Brown MT, Gockerman JP (1998) Acute leukemia following treatment of malignant glioma. J Neurooncol 40:39–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Pluda JM (1997) Tumor-associated angiogenesis: mechanisms, clinical implications, and therapeutic strategies. Semin Oncol 24:203–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Pollack IF, Boyett JM, Finlay JL (1999) Chemotherapy for high-grade gliomas of childhood. Childs Nerv Syst 15:529–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Pollack IF, Hamilton RL, Sobol RW, Burnham J, Yates AJ, Holmes EJ, Zhou T, Finlay JL (2006) O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase expression strongly correlates with outcome in childhood malignant gliomas: results from the CCG-945 Cohort. J Clin Oncol 24:3431–3437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Pollack IF, Jakacki RI, Butterfield LH, Hamilton RL, Panigrahy A, Potter DM, Connelly AK, Dibridge SA, Whiteside TL, Okada H (2014) Antigen-specific immune responses and clinical outcome after vaccination with glioma-associated antigen peptides and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stabilized by lysine and carboxymethylcellulose in children with newly diagnosed malignant brainstem and nonbrainstem gliomas. J Clin Oncol 32:2050–2058PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Prados MD, Edwards MS, Rabbitt J, Lamborn K, Davis RL, Levin VA (1997) Treatment of pediatric low-grade gliomas with a nitrosourea-based multiagent chemotherapy regimen. J Neurooncol 32:235–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Prados MD, Schold SJS, Fine HA, Jaeckle K, Hochberg F, Mechtler L, Fetell MR, Phuphanich S, Feun L, Janus TJ, Ford K, Graney W (2003) A randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled, phase 2 study of RMP-7 in combination with carboplatin administered intravenously for the treatment of recurrent malignant glioma. Neuro Oncol 5:96–103PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. Pratt WB, Ruddon RW, Ensminger WD, Maybaum J (1994) The anticancer drugs. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  145. Rall DP, Zubrod CG (1962) Mechanisms of drug absorption and excretion passage of drugs in and out of the central nervous system. Annu Rev Pharmacol 2:109–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Ridola V, Grill J, Doz F, Gentet JC, Frappaz D, Raquin MA, Habrand JL, Sainte-Rose C, Valteau-Couanet D, Kalifa C (2007) High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue followed by posterior fossa irradiation for local medulloblastoma recurrence or progression after conventional chemotherapy. Cancer 110:156–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Robinson GW, Orr BA, Wu G, Gururangan S, Lin T, Qaddoumi I, Packer RJ, Goldman S, Prados MD, Desjardins A, Chintagumpala M, Takebe N, Kaste SC, Rusch M, Allen SJ, Onar-Thomas A, Stewart CF, Fouladi M, Boyett JM, Gilbertson RJ, Curran T, Ellison DW, Gajjar A (2015) Vismodegib exerts targeted efficacy against recurrent sonic Hedgehog-Subgroup medulloblastoma: results from phase II Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Studies PBTC-025B and PBTC-032. J Clin Oncol 33:2646–2654Google Scholar
  148. Robison NJ, Campigotto F, Chi SN, Manley PE, Turner CD, Zimmerman MA, Chordas CA, Werger AM, Allen JC, Goldman S, Rubin JB, Isakoff MS, Pan WJ, Khatib ZA, Comito MA, Bendel AE, Pietrantonio JB, Kondrat L, Hubbs SM, Neuberg DS, Kieran MW (2014) A phase II trial of a multi-agent oral antiangiogenic (metronomic) regimen in children with recurrent or progressive cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer 61:636–642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Rodts GE Jr, Black KL (1994) Trans retinoic acid inhibits in vivo tumour growth of C6 glioma in rats: effect negatively influenced by nerve growth factor. Neurol Res 16:184–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Rosen G (1986) Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for osteogenic sarcoma: a model for the treatment of other highly malignant neoplasms. Recent Results Cancer Res 103:148–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Rutkowski S, Bode U, Deinlein F, Ottensmeier H, Warmuth-Metz M, Soerensen N, Graf N, Emser A, Pietsch T, Wolff JE, Kortmann RD, Kuehl J (2005) Treatment of early childhood medulloblastoma by postoperative chemotherapy alone. N Engl J Med 352:978–986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Samkari A, White J, Packer R (2015) SHH inhibitors for the treatment of medulloblastoma. Expert Rev Neurother 15:763–770PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Schinkel AH, Smit JJ, van Tellingen O, Beijnen JH, Wagenaar E, van Deemter L, Mol CA, van der Valk MA, Robanus-Maandag EC, te Riele HP et al (1994) Disruption of the mouse mdr1a P-glycoprotein gene leads to a deficiency in the blood–brain barrier and to increased sensitivity to drugs. Cell 77:491–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Seeringer A, Bartelheim K, Kerl K, Hasselblatt M, Leuschner I, Rutkowski S, Timmermann B, Kortmann RD, Koscielniak E, Schneppenheim R, Warmuth-Metz M, Gerβ J, Siebert R, Graf N, Boos J, Frühwald MC (2014) Feasibility of intensive multimodal therapy in infants affected by rhabdoid tumors – experience of the EU-RHAB registry. Klin Padiatr 226:143–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Sexauer CL, Khan A, Burger PC, Krischer JP, van Eys J, Vats T, Ragab AH (1985) Cisplatin in recurrent pediatric brain tumors. A POG Phase II study. A Pediatric Oncology Group Study. Cancer 56:1497–1501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Shih CS, Hale GA, Gronewold L, Tong X, Laningham FH, Gilger EA, Srivastava DK, Kun LE, Gajjar A, Fouladi M (2008) High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue for children with recurrent malignant brain tumors. Cancer 112:1345–1353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Shih KC, Shastry M, Williams JT, Jelsma PF, Abram SR, Ayyanar K, Burris HA 3rd, Infante JR (2014) Successful treatment with dabrafenib (GSK2118436) in a patient with ganglioglioma. J Clin Oncol 32:e98–e100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Siffert J, Allen JC (2000) Late effects of therapy of thalamic and hypothalamic tumors in childhood: vascular, neurobehavioral and neoplastic. Pediatr Neurosurg 33:105–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Sikic BI, Fisher GA, Lum BL, Halsey J, Beketic-Oreskovic L, Chen G (1997) Modulation and prevention of multidrug resistance by inhibitors of P-glycoprotein. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 40(Suppl):S13–S19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Skov K, MacPhail S (1991) Interaction of platinum drugs with clinically relevant x-ray doses in mammalian cells: a comparison of cisplatin, carboplatin, iproplatin, and tetraplatin. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 20:221–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Smith MA, Rubinstein L, Anderson JR, Arthur D, Catalano PJ, Freidlin B, Heyn R, Khayat A, Krailo M, Land VJ, Miser J, Shuster J, Vena D (1999) Secondary leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome after treatment with epipodophyllotoxins. J Clin Oncol 17:569–577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Spiller SE, Ditzler SH, Pullar BJ, Olson JM (2008) Response of preclinical medulloblastoma models to combination therapy with 13-cis retinoic acid and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). J Neurooncol 87:133–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Sposto R, Ertel IJ, Jenkin RD, Boesel CP, Venes JL, Ortega JA, Evans AE, Wara W, Hammond D (1989) The effectiveness of chemotherapy for treatment of high grade astrocytoma in children: results of a randomized trial. A report from the Childrens Cancer Study Group. J Neurooncol 7:165–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Spoudeas HA, Charmandari E, Brook CG (2003) Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis integrity after cranial irradiation for childhood posterior fossa tumours. Med Pediatr Oncol 40:224–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Stewart DJ (1994) A critique of the role of the blood–brain barrier in the chemotherapy of human brain tumors. J Neurooncol 20:121–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Strother D, Ashley D, Kellie SJ, Patel A, Jones-Wallace D, Thompson S, Heideman R, Benaim E, Krance R, Bowman L, Gajjar A (2001) Feasibility of four consecutive high-dose chemotherapy cycles with stem-cell rescue for patients with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor after craniospinal radiotherapy: results of a collaborative study. J Clin Oncol 19:2696–2704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Stupp R, Dietrich PY, Ostermann Kraljevic S, Pica A, Maillard I, Maeder P, Meuli R, Janzer R, Pizzolato G, Miralbell R, Porchet F, Regli L, de Tribolet N, Mirimanoff RO, Leyvraz S (2002) Promising survival for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme treated with concomitant radiation plus temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide. J Clin Oncol 20:1375–1382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Su JM, Thompson P, Adesina A, Li XN, Kilburn L, Onar-Thomas A, Kocak M, Chyla B, McKeegan E, Warren KE, Goldman S, Pollack IF, Fouladi M, Chen A, Giranda V, Boyett J, Kun L, Blaney SM (2014) A phase I trial of veliparib (ABT-888) and temozolomide in children with recurrent CNS tumors: a pediatric brain tumor consortium report. Neuro Oncol 16:1661–1668PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Sung KW, Yoo KH, Cho EJ, Koo HH, Lim do H, Shin HJ, Ahn SD, Ra YS, Choi ES, Ghim TT (2007) High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue in children with newly diagnosed high-risk or relapsed medulloblastoma or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Pediatr Blood Cancer 48:408–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Tada T, Takizawa T, Nakazato F, Kobayashi S, Koike K, Oguchi M, Ishii E, Amano Y (1999) Treatment of intracranial nongerminomatous germ-cell tumor by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell rescue. J Neurooncol 44:71–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Taylor RE, Bailey CC, Robinson K, Weston CL, Ellison D, Ironside J, Lucraft H, Gilbertson R, Tait DM, Walker DA, Pizer BL, Imeson J, Lashford LS (2003) Results of a randomized study of preradiation chemotherapy versus radiotherapy alone for nonmetastatic medulloblastoma: the International Society of Paediatric Oncology/United Kingdom Children’s Cancer Study Group PNET-3 Study. J Clin Oncol 21:1581–1591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Trimble EL, Ungerleider RS, Abrams JA, Kaplan RS, Feigal EG, Smith MA, Carter CL, Friedman MA (1993) Neoadjuvant therapy in cancer treatment. Cancer 72:3515–3524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Usubalieva A, Pierson CR, Kavran CA, Huntoon K, Kryvenko ON, Mayer TG, Zhao W, Rock J, Ammirati M, Puduvalli VK, Lehman NL (2015) Primary meningeal pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features: a report of 2 cases, one with BRAF(V600E) mutation and clinical response to the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 74(10):960–969PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Valtonen S, Timonen U, Toivanen P, Kalimo H, Kivipelto L, Heiskanen O, Unsgaard G, Kuurne T (1997) Interstitial chemotherapy with carmustine-loaded polymers for highgrade gliomas: a randomized double-blind study. Neurosurgery 41:44–48; discussion 48–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Vezmar S, Becker A, Bode U, Jaehde U (2003) Biochemical and clinical aspects of methotrexate neurotoxicity. Chemotherapy 49:92–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Vogelbaum MA, Aghi MK (2015) Convection-enhanced delivery for the treatment of glioblastoma. Neuro Oncol 17(Suppl 2):ii3–ii8PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. von Bossanyi P, Diete S, Dietzmann K, Warich-Kirches M, Kirches E (1997) Immunohistochemical expression of P-glycoprotein and glutathione S-transferases in cerebral gliomas and response to chemotherapy. Acta Neuropathol 94:605–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Vredenburgh JJ, Desjardins A, Herndon JE 2nd, Marcello J, Reardon DA, Quinn JA, Rich JN, Sathornsumetee S, Gururangan S, Sampson J, Wagner M, Bailey L, Bigner DD, Friedman AH, Friedman HS (2007) Bevacizumab plus irinotecan in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. J Clin Oncol 25:4722–4729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Walker RW, Allen JC (1988) Cisplatin in the treatment of recurrent childhood primary brain tumors. J Clin Oncol 6:62–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Warren K, Jakacki R, Widemann B, Aikin A, Libucha M, Packer R, Vezina G, Reaman G, Shaw D, Krailo M, Osborne C, Cehelsky J, Caldwell D, Stanwood J, Steinberg SM, Balis FM (2006) Phase II trial of intravenous lobradimil and carboplatin in childhood brain tumors: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 58:343–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Warren KE, Goldman S, Pollack IF, Fangusaro J, Schaiquevich P, Stewart CF, Wallace D, Blaney SM, Packer R, Macdonald T, Jakacki R, Boyett JM, Kun LE (2011) Phase I trial of lenalidomide in pediatric patients with recurrent, refractory, or progressive primary CNS tumors: Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium study PBTC-018. J Clin Oncol 29(3):324–329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. White L, Kellie S, Gray E, Toogood I, Waters K, Lockwood L, Macfarlane S, Johnston H (1998) Postoperative chemotherapy in children less than 4 years of age with malignant brain tumors: promising initial response to a VETOPEC-based regimen. A Study of the Australian and New Zealand Children’s Cancer Study Group (ANZCCSG). J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 20:125–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Wiestler O, Kleihues P, Pegg AE (1984) O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase activity in human brain and brain tumors. Carcinogenesis 5:121–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Wilkins DE, Heller DP, Raaphorst GP (1993) Inhibition of potentially lethal damage recovery by cisplatin in a brain tumor cell line. Anticancer Res 13:2137–2142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Wismeth C, Hau P, Fabel K, Baumgart U, Hirschmann B, Koch H, Jauch T, Grauer O, Drechsel L, Brawanski A, Bogdahn U, Steinbrecher A (2004) Maintenance therapy with 13-cis retinoid acid in high-grade glioma at complete response after first-line multimodal therapy–a phase-II study. J Neurooncol 68:79–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Yung WK, Kyritsis AP, Gleason MJ, Levin VA (1996) Treatment of recurrent malignant gliomas with high-dose 13-cisretinoic acid. Clin Cancer Res 2:1931–1935PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Zacharoulis S, Levy A, Chi SN, Gardner S, Rosenblum M, Miller DC, Dunkel I, Diez B, Sposto R, Ji L, Asgharzadeh S, Hukin J, Belasco J, Dubowy R, Kellie S, Termuhlen A, Finlay J (2007) Outcome for young children newly diagnosed with ependymoma, treated with intensive induction chemotherapy followed by myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue. Pediatr Blood Cancer 49:34–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Zaky W, Dhall G, Ji L, Haley K, Allen J, Atlas M, Bertolone S, Cornelius A, Gardner S, Patel R, Pradhan K, Shen V, Thompson S, Torkildson J, Sposto R, Finlay J (2014) Intensive induction chemotherapy followed by myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell rescue for young children newly-diagnosed with central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors: the Head Start III experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer 61:95–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Zeltzer PM, Boyett JM, Finlay JL, Albright AL, Rorke LB, Milstein JM, Allen JC, Stevens KR, Stanley P, Li H, Wisoff JH, Geyer JR, McGuire-Cullen P, Stehbens JA, Shurin SB, Packer RJ (1999) Metastasis stage, adjuvant treatment, and residual tumor are prognostic factors for medulloblastoma in children: conclusions from the Children’s Cancer Group 921 randomized phase III study. J Clin Oncol 17:832–845PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Zwelling LA, Kohn KW (1979) Mechanism of action of cisdichlorodiammineplatinum(II). Cancer Treat Rep 63:1439–1444PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Theodore Nicolaides
    • 1
    Email author
  • Biljana Horn
    • 2
  • Anuradha Banerjee
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Hematology/Oncology, Departments of Pediatrics and Neurological SurgeryUniversity of California San Francisco & UCSF Benioff Children’s HospitalSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, Department of PediatricsUniversity of California San Francisco & UCSF Benioff Children’s HospitalSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.Division of Hematology/Oncology, Departments of PediatricsUniversity of California San Francisco & UCSF Benioff Children’s HospitalSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations