Designing a Tool for Measuring the Interrelationships between L2 WTC, Confidence, Beliefs, Motivation, and Context

  • Anna Mystkowska-WiertelakEmail author
  • Mirosław Pawlak
Part of the Second Language Learning and Teaching book series (SLLT)


The study of language learners’ willingness to communicate (WTC) has gained momentum since 1998 when MacIntyre, Clément, Dörnyei, and Noels (1998) presented a conceptualization of an amalgam of psychological, linguistic, educational, and communicative dimensions of language whose interplay underlies a person’s wish to use the target language. The recognition of the importance of the concept as well as its potential to impinge on the outcomes of the learning process have generated a multitude of studies, especially in Chinese and Japanese contexts, which either attempt to test and verify MacIntyre et al.’s (1998) model or expand the array of factors that promote or hinder communication, both in the classroom and outside. The study reported in the present paper constitutes the first stage of a research project aimed to investigate the relationship between Polish learners’ in-class and out-of-class WTC in English and a number of individual and contextual variables which can be seen as its antecedents, such as communication confidence, learner beliefs, classroom environment, international posture, ideal L2 self, and ought-to L2 self. More specifically, it sought to establish the psychometric properties of eight scales that were adjusted to reflect the realities of the Polish educational context and the specificity of English instruction in foreign languages departments. Since the analysis provided evidence for high reliability of the scales and the entire tool, a decision was made to retain all the original items so that they could be further verified by means of factor analysis in subsequent studies.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Adam Mickiewicz UniversityKaliszPoland
  2. 2.State University of Applied SciencesKoninPoland

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