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Researching Shadow Education in Iran: Methodological Experiences in an Islamic Republic

  • Abbas Madandar AraniEmail author
Chapter
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Part of the CERC Studies in Comparative Education book series (CERC, volume 32)

Abstract

At the time of the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran, I was a Grade 9 student participating in demonstrations against Shah – though I admit that I viewed these activities mostly as a hobby and a way to shut down our classes. Due to the political turmoil, all universities were closed for what turned out to be three years. Even longer was the war between Iran and Iraq that lasted for eight years.

Keywords

Social Capital Private Tutoring Islamic Republic Shadow Education Education Organisation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lorestan UniversityKhorammabadIran

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