Researching Shadow Education in Iran: Methodological Experiences in an Islamic Republic

  • Abbas Madandar AraniEmail author
Part of the CERC Studies in Comparative Education book series (CERC, volume 32)


At the time of the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran, I was a Grade 9 student participating in demonstrations against Shah – though I admit that I viewed these activities mostly as a hobby and a way to shut down our classes. Due to the political turmoil, all universities were closed for what turned out to be three years. Even longer was the war between Iran and Iraq that lasted for eight years.


Social Capital Private Tutoring Islamic Republic Shadow Education Education Organisation 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lorestan UniversityKhorammabadIran

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