Advertisement

Relationships between Shadow Education and Examination Scores: Methodological Lessons from a Chinese Study in Senior Secondary Schools

  • Yu ZhangEmail author
Chapter
Part of the CERC Studies in Comparative Education book series (CERC, volume 32)

Abstract

Shadow education has been expanding for decades in China and in other Asian countries. One of the most important reasons for taking shadow education is to improve test scores, especially in contexts where such scores are crucial for access to better institutions and subsequent employment

Keywords

Propensity Score Ordinary Little Square Instrumental Variable Propensity Score Match Average Treatment Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Angrist, Joshua D. & Pischke, Jorn-Steffen (2009): Mostly Harmless Economics: An Empiricist’s Companion. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Aurini, Janice; Davies, Scott & Dierkes, Julian (eds.) (2013): Out of the Shadows: TheGoogle Scholar
  3. Global Intensification of Supplementary Education. Bingley: Emerald.Google Scholar
  4. Baker, David. P. & LeTendre, Gerald K. (2005): National Differences, Global Similarities: World Culture and the Future of Schooling. Stanford: Stanford University PressGoogle Scholar
  5. ities: World Culture and the Future of Schooling. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Blundell, Richard & Dias, Monica C. (2009): ‘Alternative Approaches to Evaluation in Empirical Microeconomics’. Journal of Human Resources, Vol.44, No.3, pp. 565–640Google Scholar
  7. Bray, Mark (2009): Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government Policies for What Private Tutoring? Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP).Google Scholar
  8. Bray, Mark & Lykins, Chad (2012). Shadow Education: Private Supplementary Tutoring and its Implications for Policy Makers in Asia. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong, and Mandaluyong City: Asian Development Bank.Google Scholar
  9. Cohn, Elchanan & Geske, Terry G. (1990): Economics of Education. 3rd edition, Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  10. Murnane, Richard J. & Willett, John B. (2010): Methods Matter: Improving Causal Inference in Educational and Social Science Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Raudenbush, Stephen W. & Bryk, Anthony S. (2002): Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods. 2nd edition, Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  12. Zhang, Yu (2011): The Determinants of National College Entrance Exam Performance in China – with an Analysis of Private Tutoring. PhD dissertation, Columbia University.Google Scholar
  13. Zhang, Yu (2013): ‘Does Private Tutoring Improve Students’ National College Entrance Exam Performance? A Case Study from Jinan, China’. Economics of Education Review, Vol.32, No.1, pp.1–‐‑28.Google Scholar
  14. Zhang, Yu; Liu, Juanjuan & Li, Manli (2015): ‘Survival Analysis of Private Tutoring Participation among Primary Education Students in Beijing’, Exploring Education Development, No.4, pp.31–‐‑37. [in Chinese]Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations