Relationships between Shadow Education and Examination Scores: Methodological Lessons from a Chinese Study in Senior Secondary Schools

  • Yu ZhangEmail author
Part of the CERC Studies in Comparative Education book series (CERC, volume 32)


Shadow education has been expanding for decades in China and in other Asian countries. One of the most important reasons for taking shadow education is to improve test scores, especially in contexts where such scores are crucial for access to better institutions and subsequent employment


Propensity Score Ordinary Little Square Instrumental Variable Propensity Score Match Average Treatment Effect 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

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