Organisational and Cross-Cultural Issues: Learning from Research Approaches

  • Mark BrayEmail author
  • Ora Kwo
Part of the CERC Studies in Comparative Education book series (CERC, volume 32)


This concluding chapter pulls together some of the threads in this book. As mentioned in the Introduction, research on private supplementary tutoring is beginning to catch up with the scale of the phenomenon, but has far to go. As such, the contributors to this book are at the forefront of an emerging and very significant field. Insofar as shadow education mimics regular schooling, it may be argued that approaches to research should also mimic.


Cultural Issue Private Tutor Central African Republic Regular Schooling Asia Pacific Journal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Addi-Raccah, Audrey & Dana, Oshra (2015): ‘Private Tutoring Intensity in Schools: A Comparison between High and Low Socio-Economic Schools’. International Studies in Sociology of Education. DOI  10.1080/09620214.2015. 1069719.
  2. Ahmadova, Mehpara (2015): Regulating Private Tutoring in Azerbaijan: Challenges and Possible Responses. MEd dissertation, The University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  3. Bray, Mark (2009): Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government Policies for What Private Tutoring?. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP).Google Scholar
  4. Bray, Mark (2011): The Challenge of Shadow Education: Private Tutoring and its Implications for Policy Makers in the European Union. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  5. Bray, Mark & Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa (2014): ‘Measurement Issues in Research on Shadow Education: Challenges and Pitfalls Encountered in TIMSS and PISA’. Comparative Education Review, Vol.58, No.4, pp.590-620.Google Scholar
  6. Bray, Mark & Kwo, Ora (2014): Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong, and Bangkok: UNESCO, 98pp.Google Scholar
  7. Bray, Mark & Lykins, Chad (2012): Shadow Education: Private Supplementary Tutoring and Its Implications for Policy Makers in Asia. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong, and Mandaluyong City: Asian Development Bank.Google Scholar
  8. Brehm, William (2015): Enacting Educational Spaces: A Landscape Portrait of Privatization in Cambodia. PhD thesis, The University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  9. Chan, Claudia & Bray, Mark (2014): ‘Marketized Private Tutoring as a Supplement to Regular Schooling: Liberal Studies and the Shadow Sector in Hong Kong Secondary Education’. Journal of Curriculum Studies, Vol.46, No.3, pp.361-388.Google Scholar
  10. Cohn, Elchanan & Geske, Terry G. (1990): Economics of Education. 3rd edition, Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  11. Creswell, John W. (2014): Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. 4th edition, Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  12. Dang, Hai-Anh (2007): ‘The Determinants and Impact of Private Tutoring Classes in Vietnam’. Economics of Education Review, Vol.26, No.6, pp.648-699.Google Scholar
  13. Davis, Jenny (2013): Educational Legitimation and Parental Aspiration: Private Tutoring in Perth, Western Australia. PhD thesis, The University of Western Australia.Google Scholar
  14. della Porta, Donatella (2008): ‘Comparative Analysis: Case-oriented versus Variable-oriented Research’, in della Porta, Donatella & Keating, Michael (eds.), Approaches and Methodologies in the Social Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.198-222.Google Scholar
  15. della Porta, Donatella & Keating, Michael (eds.) (2008): Approaches and Methodologies in the Social Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Delors, Jacques (Chairman) (1996): Learning: The Treasure Within. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  17. Gorard, Stephen & Taylor, Chris (2004): Combining Methods in Educational and Social Research. Maidenhead: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Guill, Karin & Bos, Wilfried (2014): ‘Effectiveness of Private Tutoring in Mathematics with Regard to Subjective and Objective Indicators of Academic Achievement: Evidence from a German Secondary School Sample’. Journal for Educational Research Online, Vol.6, No.1, pp.34-67.Google Scholar
  19. Guillemin, Marilys & Gillam, Lynn (2004): ‘Ethics, Reflexivity, and “Ethically Important Moments” in Research’. Qualitative Inquiry, Vol.10, No.2, pp.261-280.Google Scholar
  20. Gunasekara, P.D.J. (2009): ‘A Study of the Attendance Patterns of G.C.E. (A/L) Student at School.’ Sri Lankan Journal of Educational Research, Vol.11, pp.56-89.Google Scholar
  21. Ha, Tran Thu & Harpham, Trudy (2005): ‘Primary Education in Vietnam: Extra Classes and Outcomes’. International Education Journal, Vol.6, No.5, pp.626-634.Google Scholar
  22. Holliday, Adrian (2013): ‘The Politics of Ethics in Diverse Cultural Settings: Colonising the Centre Stage’. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, Vol.43, No.4, pp.537-544.Google Scholar
  23. Jelani, Juliana & Tan, Andrew K.G. (2012): ‘Determinants of Participation and Expenditure Patterns of Private Tuition Received by Primary School Students in Penang, Malaysia: An Exploratory Study’. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Vol.32, No.1, pp.19-35.Google Scholar
  24. Johnson, Burke & Christensen, Larry (2012): Educational Research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches. Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
  25. Johnson, Eric M. (2008). Out of Control? Patterns of Teacher Corruption in Kyrgyzstan and their Implications for the Study of Street-level Corruption Control. PhD dissertation, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Columbia University.Google Scholar
  26. Jokić, Boris (ed.) (2013): Emerging from the Shadow: A Comparative Qualitative Exploration of Private Tutoring in Eurasia. Zagreb: Network of Education Policy Centers.Google Scholar
  27. Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa (2014): ‘Corruption Risks of Private Tutoring: Case of Georgia’. Asia Pacific Education Review, Vol.34, No.4, pp.455-475.Google Scholar
  28. Kodakos, Anastassios & Kalavasis, Fragiskos (eds.) (2005): Shadow Education System: Border Management Models of the School with the Structures of Education Market. Athens: Diadrasi. [partially in Greek]Google Scholar
  29. Koh, Aaron (2014): ‘The “Magic” of Tutorial Centres in Hong Kong: An Analysis of Media Marketing and Pedagogy in a Tutorial Centre’. International Review of Education, Vol.60, No.6, pp.803-819.Google Scholar
  30. KOSIS [Korean Statistical Information Service] (2015): ‘Private Education Participation Rate by School Level’., accessed 30 May 2015.
  31. Lee, Chong Jae & Jang, Hyo-Min (2010): ‘The History of Policy Responses to Shadow Education in Korea: Implications for the Next Cycle of Policy Responses’, in Lee, Chong Jae; Kim, Seong-yul & Adams, Don (eds.), Sixty Years of Korean Education. Seoul: Seoul National University Press, pp.512-545.Google Scholar
  32. Manzon, Maria & Areepattamannil, Shaljan (2014): ‘Shadow Educations: Mapping the Global Discourse’. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Vol.34, No.4, pp.389-412.Google Scholar
  33. Mariya, Maryam (2012): I Don’ʹt Learn at School, so I take Tuition: An Ethnographic Study of Classroom Practices and Private Tuition Settings in the Maldives. PhD thesis, Massey University.Google Scholar
  34. Menefee, Trey & Bray, Mark (2015): Education in the Commonwealth: Quality Education for Equitable Development. Report commissioned for the 19th Conference of Commonwealth Education Ministers, The Bahamas, 22-26 June 2015. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.Google Scholar
  35. Merriam, Sharan B. (2009). Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation. San Francisco : Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  36. Mischo, Christoph & Haag, Ludwig (2002): ‘Expansion and Effectiveness of Private Tutoring’. European Journal of Psychology of Education, Vol.XVII, No.3, pp.263-273.Google Scholar
  37. Moosa, Dheeba (2013): ‘ʹChallenges to Anonymity and Representation in Educational Qualitative Research in a Small Community: A Reflection on my Research Journey’ʹ. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, Vol.43, No.4, pp.483-495.Google Scholar
  38. Nazeer, Abdulla (2006): Teaching Economics at Secondary School Level in the Maldives: A Cooperative Learning Model. PhD thesis, University of Waikato.Google Scholar
  39. Pallegedara, Asankha (2012): ‘Demand for Private Tutoring in a Free Education Country: The Case of Sri Lanka’. International Journal of Education Economics and Development, Vol.3, No. 4, pp.375-393.Google Scholar
  40. Paviot, Laura Ciero (2015): Private Tuition in Kenya and Mauritius: Policies, Practices and Parents’ Perceptions Examined from an Ecological Systems Perspective. EdD thesis, University College London (UCL) Institute of Education.Google Scholar
  41. Robinson-Pant, Anna & Singal, Nidhi (2013): ‘Research Ethics in Comparative and International Education: Reflections from Anthropology and Health’. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, Vol.43, No.4, pp.443-463.Google Scholar
  42. Seth, Michael J. (2002): Education Fever: Society, Politics, and the Pursuit of Schooling in South Korea. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.Google Scholar
  43. Silova, Iveta; Būdienė, Virginija & Bray, Mark (eds.) (2006): Education in a Hidden Marketplace: Monitoring of Private Tutoring. New York: Open Society Institute.Google Scholar
  44. Smith, Linda Tuhiwai (1999): Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  45. Song, K.O.; Park, H.J. & Sang, K.A. (2013): ‘A Cross-national Analysis of the Student- and School-level Factors Affecting the Demand for Private Tutoring’. Asia Pacific Education Review, Vol.14, No.2, pp.125-139.Google Scholar
  46. Southgate, Darby E. (2009): Determinants of Shadow Education: A Cross- national Analysis. PhD dissertation, The Ohio State University.Google Scholar
  47. Spencer-Rowe, Joan (2000): An Investigation of the Practice of Extra Lessons in Schools at the Primary Level of the Jamaican Education System: A Report. Kingston: Planning Institute of Jamaica/Ministry of Education and Culture.Google Scholar
  48. Spindler, George & Spindler, Louise (1982): ‘Roger Harker and Schönhausen: From Familiar to Strange and Back Again’, in Spindler, George (ed.), Doing the Ethnography of Schooling: Educational Anthropology in Action. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, pp.20-46.Google Scholar
  49. Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty (1988): ‘Can the Subaltern Speak?’, in Nelson, Cary & Grossberg, Lawrence (eds.), Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture. Basingstoke: Macmillan, pp.271-313.Google Scholar
  50. Stewart, Saran (2013): Everything in di Dark Muss Come to Light: A Postcolonial Examination of the Practice of Extra Lessons at the Secondary Level in Jamaica’s Education System. PhD Dissertation, University of Denver.Google Scholar
  51. Tuitt, Frank (2003): ‘Afterword: Realizing a More Inclusive Pedagogy’, in Howell, Annie & Tuitt, Frank (eds.), Race and Higher Education: Rethinking Pedagogy in Diverse College Classrooms. Cambridge: Harvard Educational Review Reprint Series, pp.243-268.Google Scholar
  52. UNESCO (2015): Rethinking Education: Towards a Global Common Good?. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  53. Watkins, David A. & Biggs, John B. (eds.) (1996): The Chinese Learner: Cultural, Psychological, and Contextual Influences. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong, and Melbourne: Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  54. Wattar, Dania (2014): Globalization, Curriculum Reform and Teacher Professional Development in Syria. PhD thesis, University of Alberta.Google Scholar
  55. White, J. & Fitzgerald, T. (2010): ‘Researcher Tales and Research Ethics: The Spaces in which We Find Ourselves’. International Journal of Research and Method in Education, Vol.33, No.3, pp.273-285.Google Scholar
  56. Wolcott, H.F. (1994): Transforming Qualitative Data: Description, Analysis, and Interpretation. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  57. Wiseman, Alexander W. (2013): ‘Foreword’, in Aurini, Janice; Davies, Scott & Dierkes, Julian (eds.), Out of the Shadows: The Global Intensification of Supplementary Education. Bingley: Emerald, pp.xi-xiii.Google Scholar
  58. Yip, Kam Yuen William (2014): Shadow Education in Hong Kong: Typology and Educational Functions of Private Supplementary Tutoring. MEd dissertation, The University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  59. Yu, Hongxia & Ding, Xiaoghao (2011): ‘How to Get Out of the Prisoners’ Dilemma: Educational Resource Allocation and Private Tutoring’. Frontiers of Education in China, Vol.6, No.2, pp.279-292.Google Scholar
  60. Zhang, Yu (2011): The Determinants of National College Entrance Exam Performance in China – with an Analysis of Private Tutoring. PhD dissertation, Columbia University.Google Scholar
  61. Zhang, Wei (2013): Private Supplementary Tutoring Received by Grade 9 Students in Chongqing, China: Determinants of Demand, and Policy Implications. PhD thesis, The University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  62. Zhang, Wei & Bray, Mark (2013): ‘Researching Supplementary Education: Plans, Realities, and Lessons from Fieldwork in China’, in Aurini, Janice; Davies, Scott & Dierkes, Julian (eds.), Out of the Shadows: The Global Intensification of Supplementary Education. Bingley: Emerald, pp.67-94.Google Scholar
  63. Zhang, Zhoulin (2014): Positioning and Roles of English Tutoring Centers in Hangzhou, China: Perceptions and Strategies of Administrators in Six Enterprises. MEd dissertation, The University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  64. Zhou, Min & Kim, Susan S. (2008): ‘Community Forces, Social Capital, and Educational Achievement: The Case of Supplementary Education in the Chinese and Korean Immigrant Communities’. Harvard Educational Review, Vol.76, No.1, pp.1-29.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of Hong KongHong KongChina

Personalised recommendations