How a Research Instrument Changed in Different Settings: Methodological Lessons from Adaptation and Adjustment

  • Junyan LiuEmail author
Part of the CERC Studies in Comparative Education book series (CERC, volume 32)


Chapter 8 of this book has described a study of shadow education in Hong Kong, including the instruments used. Other chapters, namely those on Malaysia (Chapter 2), Iran (Chapter 7), India (Chapter 9), and Jamaica (Chapter 10) have indicated ways in which the questionnaire for students was adapted for use in those countries.


Private Tutoring Student Questionnaire Shadow Education Hukou Status Urban Hukou 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Comparative Education Research Centre, Faculty of EducationThe University of Hong KongHong KongChina

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