Researching Private Supplementary Tutoring in Cambodia: Contexts, Instruments and Approaches

  • Mark BrayEmail author
  • Wei Zhang
  • Magda Nutsa Kobakhidze
  • Junyan Liu
Part of the CERC Studies in Comparative Education book series (CERC, volume 32)


Cambodia is widely known as a country with a long history exemplified by the Angkor Wat temple, that greatly suffered in the 1970s under the Khmer Rouge regime led by Pol Pot, and that has since developed at remarkable albeit unsteady speed as a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).


United Nations Development Programme Private Tutoring Lower Secondary School Shadow Education National Partnership 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alvesson, Mats & Skoldberg, Kaj (2009): Reflexive Methodology: New Vistas for Qualitative Research. 2nd edition. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  2. Aniekwe, Chika C.; Hayman, Rachel & Mdee, Anna (2012): Academic- NGO Collaboration in International Development Research: A Reflection on the Issues. London: Development Studies Association.
  3. Ayres, David (2003): Anatomy of a Crisis: Education, Development, and the State in Cambodia, 1953-1998. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books.Google Scholar
  4. Benveniste, Luis; Marshall, Jeffery & Araujo, M. Caridad (2008): Teaching in Cambodia. Washington DC: Human Development Sector, East Asia and Pacific Region, The World Bank.Google Scholar
  5. Blatchford, Peter (2003): ‘A Systematic Observational Study of Teachers’ and Pupils’ Behaviour in Large and Small Classes’. Learning and Instruction, Vol.13, No.6, pp.569-595.Google Scholar
  6. Blatchford, Peter; Russell, Anthony; Bassett, Paul; Brown, Penelope & Martin, Clare (2007): ‘The Effect of Class Size on the Teaching of Pupils aged 7-11 Years’. School Effectiveness and School Improvement: An International Journal of Research, Policy and Practice, Vol.18, No.2, pp.147-172.Google Scholar
  7. Bray, Mark (1996): Counting the Full Cost: Household and Community Financing of Education in East Asia. Washington DC: The World Bank in collaboration with UNICEF.Google Scholar
  8. Bray, Mark (1999): The Private Costs of Public Schooling: Household and Community Financing of Primary Education in Cambodia. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) in collaboration with UNICEF.Google Scholar
  9. Bray, Mark (2008): Double-Shift Schooling: Design and Operation for School Effectiveness. 3rd edition. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP).Google Scholar
  10. Bray, Mark & Bunly, Seng (2005): Balancing the Books: Household Financing of Basic Education in Cambodia. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong and Washington DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  11. Brehm, William C. (2015): Enacting Educational Spaces: A Landscape Portrait of Privatization in Cambodia. PhD thesis, The University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  12. Brehm, William C. & Silova, Iveta (2014): ‘Hidden Privatization of Public Education in Cambodia: Equity Implications of Private Tutoring’. Journal of Educational Research Online, Vol.6, No.1, pp.94-116.Google Scholar
  13. Brehm, William C.; Silova, Iveta & Tuot, Mono (2012): The Public-Private Education System in Cambodia: The Impact and Implications of Complementary Tutoring. Budapest: Education Support Program, Open Society Foundations.Google Scholar
  14. Cambodia, Ministry of Planning (2013): Economic Census of Cambodia 2011: Provincial Report – 17 Siem Reap Province. Phnom Penh: National Institute of Statistics, Ministry of Planning.
  15. Cambodia, Ministry of Planning (2014): National Strategic Development Plan 2014-2018. Phnom Penh: Ministry of Planning.Google Scholar
  16. Cambodia, MoEYS (2004): Policy for Curriculum Development 2005-2009. Phnom Penh: Ministry of Education, Youth & Sport.Google Scholar
  17. Cambodia, MoEYS (2007): Child Friendly Schools Policy. Phnom Penh: Ministry of Education, Youth & Sport.
  18. Cambodia, MoEYS (2010): Education Strategic Plan 2009-2013. Phnom Penh: Ministry of Education, Youth & Sport.
  19. Cambodia, MoEYS (2014): Education Strategic Plan 2014-2018. Phnom Penh: Ministry of Education, Youth & Sport.
  20. Chhinh, Sitha & Dy, Sideth S. (2009): ‘Education Reform Context and Process in Cambodia’, in Hirosato, Yasushi & Kitamura, Yuto (eds.), The Political Economy of Educational Reforms and Capacity Development in Southeast Asia: Cases of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. Dordrecht: Springer, pp.113-129.Google Scholar
  21. Cohen, Louis, Manion, Lawrence & Morrison, Keith (2011): ‘Research Methods in Education’. 7th edition. Abingdon, Oxon; New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  22. Dawson, Walter (2009): ‘The Tricks of the Teacher: Shadow Education and Corruption in Cambodia’, in Heyneman, Stephen P. (ed.), Buying Your Way into Heaven: Education and Corruption in International Perspective. Rotterdam: Sense, pp.51-74.Google Scholar
  23. Dawson, Walter (2010): ‘Private Tutoring and Mass Schooling in East Asia: Reflections of Inequality in Japan, South Korea, and Cambodia’. Asia Pacific Education Review, Vol.11, No.1, pp.14-24.Google Scholar
  24. Engel, Jakob (2011): Rebuilding Basic Education in Cambodia: Establishing a More Effective Development Partnership. London: Overseas Development Institute.Google Scholar
  25. Finlay, Linda (2002): ‘Negotiating the Swamp: The Opportunity and Challenge of Reflexivity in Research Practice’. Qualitative Research, Vol.2, No.2, pp.209-230.Google Scholar
  26. Geeves, Richard & Bredenberg, Kurt (2005): Contract Teachers in Cambodia. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP).Google Scholar
  27. Hardy, Cynthia; Phillips, Nelson & Clegg, Stewart (2001): ‘Reflexivity in Organization and Management Theory: A Study of the Production of the Research ‘Subject’’. Human Relations, Vol.54, No.4, pp.531-560.Google Scholar
  28. Jayachandran, Seema (2014): ‘Incentives to Teach Badly: After-school Tutoring in Developing Countries’. Journal of Development Economics, Vol.108, May, pp.190-205.Google Scholar
  29. McTaggart, Robin (2013): ‘Evolving Ethics in Educational Research’, in Reid, Alan D.; Hart, E. Paul & Peters, Michael A. (eds.), A Companion to Research in Education. Dordrecht: Springer, pp.457-469.Google Scholar
  30. Miles, Matthew & Huberman, Michael A. (1994): ‘Qualitative data analysis: An expanded source book’. 2nd edition. Thousand Oakes, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  31. NGO Education Partnership (2007): The Impact of Informal School Fees on Family Expenditure. Phnom Penh: NGO Education Partnership.Google Scholar
  32. Ponniah, Kevin (2014). ‘Cambodia Crackdown on Corruption in Schools Scores Low with Exam Cheats’. The Guardian, 2 September.
  33. Robbins, Jill (2015): ‘New Minister Cleans up Cambodia’s Education System’. Voice of America, 30 January.
  34. Seidman, Irving (1998): Interviewing as Qualitative Research: A Guide for Researchers in Education and the Social Sciences. 2nd edition. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  35. Tandon, Prateek & Fukao, Tsuyoshi (2015): Educating the Next Generation: Improving Teacher Quality in Cambodia. Directions in Development, Washington DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  36. TLC (2010): Child Protection Policy. Siem Reap: This Life Cambodia.
  37. UNDP (2014): Curbing Private Tutoring and Informal Fees in Cambodia’s Basic Education. Phnom Penh: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark Bray
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wei Zhang
    • 1
  • Magda Nutsa Kobakhidze
    • 1
  • Junyan Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.Comparative Education Research Centre, Faculty of EducationThe University of Hong KongHong KongChina

Personalised recommendations