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Shadow Education Research through TIMSS and PIRLS: Experiences and Lessons in the Republic of Georgia

  • Magda Nutsa KobakhidzeEmail author
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Part of the CERC Studies in Comparative Education book series (CERC, volume 32)

Abstract

In Malaysia, private tutoring is widely perceived as a household necessity. A 2004/05 household expenditure survey recorded that 20.1 per cent of households with at least one child aged seven to 19 indicated expenditures on private tutoring (Kenayathulla 2013, p.634). In a smaller sample of urban students, Tan (2011) surveyed 1,600 Year 7 (lower secondary) students from eight schools in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, and found that 88.0 per cent had received tutoring during their primary schooling

Keywords

School Subject Private Tutoring Reading Literacy Background Questionnaire Shadow Education 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of Hong KongHong KongChina

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