Integrity Constraints for General-Purpose Knowledge Bases

  • Luís Cruz-FilipeEmail author
  • Isabel Nunes
  • Peter Schneider-Kamp
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9616)


Integrity constraints in databases have been studied extensively since the 1980s, and they are considered essential to guarantee database integrity. In recent years, several authors have studied how the same notion can be adapted to reasoning frameworks, in such a way that they achieve the purpose of guaranteeing a system’s consistency, but are kept separate from the reasoning mechanisms.

In this paper we focus on multi-context systems, a general-purpose framework for combining heterogeneous reasoning systems, enhancing them with a notion of integrity constraints that generalizes the corresponding concept in the database world.



We would like to thank Graça Gaspar for introducing us to the exciting topic of integrity constraints and for many fruitful discussions. We also thank the anonymous referees for many valuable suggestions that improved the overall quality of this paper. This work was supported by the Danish Council for Independent Research, Natural Sciences, and by FCT/MCTES/PIDDAC under centre grant to BioISI (Centre Reference: UID/MULTI/04046/2013).


  1. 1.
    Abiteboul, S.: Updates, a new frontier. In: Gyssens, M., Paredaens, J., van Gucht, D. (eds.) ICDT’88. LNCS, vol. 326, pp. 1–18. Springer, Heidelberg (1988)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abiteboul, S., Hull, R., Vianu, V.: Foundations of Databases. Addison Wesley, Reading (1995)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arenas, M., Bertossi, L., Chomicki, J.: Consistent query answers in inconsistent databases. In: Vianu, V., Papadimitriou, C. (eds.) PODS 1999, pp. 68–79. ACM Press (1999)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Asirelli, P., Santis, M.D., Martelli, M.: Integrity constraints for logic databases. J. Log. Program. 2(3), 221–232 (1985)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brewka, G., Eiter, T.: Equilibria in heterogeneous nonmonotonic multi-context systems. In: AAAI 2007, pp. 385–390. AAAI Press (2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brewka, G., Eiter, T., Fink, M.: Nonmonotonic multi-context systems: a flexible approach for integrating heterogeneous knowledge sources. In: Balduccini, M., Son, T.C. (eds.) Logic Programming, Knowledge Representation, and Nonmonotonic Reasoning. LNCS, vol. 6565, pp. 233–258. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brewka, G., Eiter, T., Fink, M., Weinzierl, A.: Managed multi-context systems. In: Walsh, T. (ed.) IJCAI 2011, IJCAI/AAAI, pp. 786–791 (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Caroprese, L., Trubitsyna, I., Truszczyński, M., Zumpano, E.: The view-update problem for indefinite databases. In: del Cerro, L.F., Herzig, A., Mengin, J. (eds.) JELIA 2012. LNCS, vol. 7519, pp. 134–146. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Caroprese, L., Zumpano, E.: Consistent data integration in P2P deductive databases. In: Prade, H., Subrahmanian, V.S. (eds.) SUM 2007. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4772, pp. 230–243. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Caroprese, L., Zumpano, E.: Dealing with incompleteness and inconsistency in P2P deductive databases. In: Desai, B., Almeida, A., Bernardino, J., Ferreira Gomes, E. (eds.) IDEAS 2014, pp. 124–131. ACM (2014)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cruz-Filipe, L.: Optimizing computation of repairs from active integrity constraints. In: Beierle, C., Meghini, C. (eds.) FoIKS 2014. LNCS, vol. 8367, pp. 361–380. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cruz-Filipe, L., Franz, M., Hakhverdyan, A., Ludovico, M., Nunes, I., Schneider-Kamp, P.: repAIrC: a tool for ensuring data consistency by means of active integrity constraints. In: Fred, A., Dietz, J., Aveiro, D., Liu, K., Filipe, J. (eds.) KMIS, pp. 17–26. SciTePress (2015)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cruz-Filipe, L., Gaspar, G., Nunes, I.: Information flow within relational multi-context systems. In: Janowicz, K., Schlobach, S., Lambrix, P., Hyvönen, E. (eds.) EKAW 2014. LNCS, vol. 8876, pp. 97–108. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cruz-Filipe, L., Henriques, R., Nunes, I.: Description logics, rules and multi-context systems. In: McMillan, K., Middeldorp, A., Voronkov, A. (eds.) LPAR-19 2013. LNCS, vol. 8312, pp. 243–257. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dao-Tran, M., Eiter, T., Fink, M., Krennwallner, T.: Distributed nonmonotonic multi-context systems. In: Lin, F., Sattler, U., Truszczynski, M. (eds.) KR 2010. AAAI Press (2010)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Eiter, T., Fink, M., Ianni, G., Schüller, P.: The IMPL policy language for managing inconsistency in multi-context systems. In: Tompits, H., Abreu, S., Oetsch, J., Pührer, J., Seipel, D., Umeda, M., Wolf, A. (eds.) INAP/WLP 2011. LNCS, vol. 7773, pp. 2–25. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Eiter, T., Fink, M., Schüller, P., Weinzierl, A.: Finding explanations of inconsistency in multi-context systems. Artif. Intell. 216, 233–274 (2014)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Eiter, T., Gottlob, G.: On the complexity of propositional knowledge base revision, updates, and counterfactuals. Artif. Intell. 57(2–3), 227–270 (1992)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fang, M., Li, W., Sunderraman, R.: Maintaining integrity constraints among distributed ontologies. In: CISIS 2011, pp. 184–191. IEEE (2011)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fink, M., Ghionna, L., Weinzierl, A.: Relational information exchange and aggregation in multi-context systems. In: Delgrande, J.P., Faber, W. (eds.) LPNMR 2011. LNCS, vol. 6645, pp. 120–133. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Flesca, S., Greco, S., Zumpano, E.: Active integrity constraints. In: Moggi, E., Scott Warren, D. (eds.) PPDP 2004, pp. 98–107. ACM (2004)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gallaire, H., Minker, J., Nicolas, J.M.: Logic and databases: a deductive approach. ACM Comput. Surv. 16(2), 153–185 (1984)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gonçalves, R., Knorr, M., Leite, J.: Evolving multi-context systems. In: Schaub, T., Friedrich, G., O’Sullivan, B. (eds.) ECAI 2014, Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, vol. 263, pp. 375–380. IOS Press (2014)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kakas, A., Mancarella, P.: Database updates through abduction. In: McLeod, D., Sacks-Davis, R., Schek, H.J. (eds.) VLDB 1990, pp. 650–661. Morgan Kaufmann (1990)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mayol, E., Teniente, E.: Consistency preserving updates in deductive databases. Data Knowl. Eng. 47(1), 61–103 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Motik, B., Horrocks, I., Sattler, U.: Bridging the gap between OWL and relational databases. Web Seman. Sci. Serv. Agents World Wide Web 7(2), 74–89 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pourebrahimi, B., Bertels, K., Vassiliadis, S.: A survey of peer-to-peer networks. In: ProRISC 2005 (2005)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pührer, J., Heymans, S., Eiter, T.: Dealing with inconsistency when combining ontologies and rules using DL-programs. In: Aroyo, L., Antoniou, G., Hyvönen, E., ten Teije, A., Stuckenschmidt, H., Cabral, L., Tudorache, T. (eds.) ESWC 2010, Part I. LNCS, vol. 6088, pp. 183–197. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schlipf, J.: Complexity and undecidability results for logic programming. Ann. Math. Artif. Intell. 15(3–4), 257–288 (1995)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Staworko, S., Chomicki, J.: Consistent query answers in the presence of universal constraints. Inf. Syst. 35(1), 1–22 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tasharrofi, S., Ternovska, E.: Generalized multi-context systems. In: Baral, C., de Giacomo, G., Eiter, T. (eds.) KR 2014. AAAI Press (2014)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Teniente, E., Olivé, A.: Updating knowledge bases while maintaining their consistency. VLDB J. 4(2), 193–241 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ullman, J.: Principles of Database and Knowledge-Base Systems, Volume I. Computer Science Press, Cambridge (1988)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vardi, M.: The complexity of relational query languages (extended abstract). In: Lewis, H., Simons, B., Burkhard, W., Landweber, L. (eds.) STOC 1982, pp. 137–146. ACM (1982)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Weinzierl, A.: Advancing multi-context systems by inconsistency management. In: Bragaglia, S., Damásio, C., Montali, M., Preece, A., Petrie, C., Proctor, M., Straccia, U. (eds.) RuleML2011@BRF Challenge, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, vol. 799, (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luís Cruz-Filipe
    • 1
    Email author
  • Isabel Nunes
    • 2
  • Peter Schneider-Kamp
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mathematics and Computer ScienceUniversity of Southern DenmarkOdenseDenmark
  2. 2.Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal

Personalised recommendations