Communism and Nationalism in Cyprus
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The Communist Party of Cyprus1 was officially founded in 1926 by the first Cypriot communists, who had returned from their studies abroad, and by workers, mainly from the wider area of Lemesos.2 It was, of course, preceded by the formulation of various “intellectual movements,” influenced by the demoticist movement,3 out of which the first socialist and Marxist groups emerged.4 The KKK appeared at a time when disappointment flared over failed expectations that England would cede Cyprus to Greece, as had happened in 1864 with the Ionian Islands. Not only did England fail to implement the promises it had made to Cyprus during World War I, but also England officially annexed Cyprus to its colonies in 1925. Workers’ living conditions were miserable, and poverty ravaged the populace.5 Within this economic impoverishment the first communist group, which appeared in Cyprus during World War I, began taking action. The ground was perfectly suitable for the development of the socialist movement.