Advertisement

Models for and Practice of Continuous Professional Development for Airline Pilots: What We Can Learn from One Regional Airline

  • Timothy J. MavinEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Professional and Practice-based Learning book series (PPBL, volume 16)

Abstract

Most pilots have extensive flying experience prior to joining a new airline. Yet the time taken for these pilots to transfer onto a new aircraft type and be inducted into the airline can take as long as four to 6 months. Even when a pilot completes this training and is assessed as skilled enough to fly as an operational airline pilot, there still remains a continuing education and training program culminating with performance assessment throughout their career. During this recurrent training program numerous modes of instruction are available to an airline. Such training and assessment methods include classroom-based tuition, computer-based training, simulator-oriented flight instruction and real aircraft flight training. Although each mode has both strengths and limitations, there has been a tendency in airline training systems to limit change even when mode limitations have been identified. The aim of this chapter is to describe how one airline and a university-based research team have changed different modes of teaching/learning focusing more on reflective practice. I exemplify the change that arises from the collaboration in the context of two training methods and outline the strengths and weakness of each.

Keywords

Situational Awareness Implicit Memory Explicit Memory Reflective Practice Aircraft System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgment

Thanks to Michael Roth for his ideas and editorial assistance in the first draft. Appreciation goes to Ian Munro for his help in the development of the debriefing framework.

References

  1. Baker, D. P., & Dismukes, R. K. (2002). A framework for understanding crew performance assessment issues. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 12, 205–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Betts, J. (2004). Theology, therapy or picket line? What’s the good of reflective practice in management education? Reflective Practice, 5, 239–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brannick, M. T., & Brannick, J. P. (1989). Nonlinear and noncompensatory processes in performance evaluation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 44, 97–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cassidy, S. (2007). Assessing ‘inexperienced’students’ ability to self assess: Exploring links with learning style and academic personal control. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 32, 313–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheng, A., Eppich, W., Grant, V., Sherbino, V., Zendejas, B., & Cook, D. A. (2014). Debriefing for technology-enhanced simulation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medical Education, 48, 657–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cheon, H. (2014). Distributed cognition in scientific contexts. Journal for General Philosophy of Science, 45, 23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dewey, J. (2012). How we think. New Orleans, LA: Quid Pro Books (Original work published 1910).Google Scholar
  8. Dunning, D., Johnson, K., Ehrlinger, J., & Kruger, J. (2003). Why people fail to recognize their own incompetence. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, 83–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dunning, D., & Suls, J. M. (2004). Flawed self-assessment implications for health, education, and the workplace. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 5, 69–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ericsson, A. K. (2008). Deliberate practice and acquisition of expert performance: A general overview. Academic Emergency Medicine, 15, 988–994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Flin, R., Martin, L., Goeters, K., Hörmann, H., Amalberti, R., Valot, C., et al. (2003). Development of the NOTECHS (non-technical skills) system for assessing pilots’ skills. Human Factors and Aerospace Safety, 3, 97–119.Google Scholar
  12. Flin, R., O’Connor, P., & Crichton, M. (2008). Safety at the sharp end. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  13. Goujon, A., Didierjean, A., & Poulet, S. (2014). The emergence of explicit knowledge from implicit learning. Memory & Cognition, 42, 225–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Grimm, L. R. (2014). Psychology of knowledge representation. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science, 5, 261–270. doi:  10.1002/wcs.1284.
  15. Gurung, R. A. R., Daniel, D. B., & Landrum, R. E. (2012). A multisite study of learning in introductory psychology courses. Teaching of Psychology, 39, 170–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hassall, L., & Balfour, M. (in press). Transitioning home: Research-based theatre with returning servicemen and their families. In B. George & L. Graham Lea (Eds.), Research-based theatre. Bristol, UK: Intellect.Google Scholar
  17. Helmreich, R. L., Merritt, A. C., & Wilhelm, J. A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 9, 19–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Henriqson, E., van Winsen, R., Saurin, T. A., & Dekker, S. W. A. (2011). How a cockpit calculates its speeds and why errors while doing this are so hard to detect. Cognition, Technology, and Work, 13, 217–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Holden, R., & Griggs, V. (2011). Not more learning logs! A research based perspective on teaching reflective learning within HR professional education. Human Resource Development International, 14, 483–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Holt, R. W., Hansberger, J. T., & Boehm-Davis, D. A. (2002). Improving rater calibration in aviation: A case study. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 12, 305–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hulsman, R. L., Harmsen, A. B., & Fabriek, M. (2009). Reflective teaching of medical communication skills with DiViDU: Assessing the level of student reflection on recorded consultations with simulated patients. Patient Education and Counseling, 74, 142–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hutchins, E. (1995). How a cockpit remembers its speeds. Cognitive Science, 19, 265–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Johnston, A. N., Rushby, N., & Maclean, I. (2000). An assistant for crew performance assessment. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 10, 99–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Koole, S., Dornan, T., Aper, L., De Wever, B., Scherpbier, A., Valcke, M., … Derese, A. (2012). Using video-cases to assess student reflection: Development and validation of an instrument. BMC Medical Education, 12, 22–29.Google Scholar
  25. Lane, J. L., & Gottlieb, R. P. (2004). Improving the interviewing and self-assessment skills of medical students: Is it time to readopt videotaping as an educational tool? Ambulatory Paediatrics, 4, 244–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lister, P. G., & Crisp, B. R. (2007). Critical incident analyses: A practice learning tool for students and practitioners. Practice: Social Work in Action, 19, 47–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mavin, T. J., & Murray, P. (2010). The development of airline pilot skills through practice. In S. Billett (Ed.), Learning through practice: Models, traditions, orientations and approaches (pp. 268–286). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mavin, T. J., & Roth, W.-M. (2014a). Between reflection on practice and the practice of reflection: A case study from aviation. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 15, 651–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mavin, T. J., & Roth, W.-M. (2014b). A holistic view of cockpit performance: An analysis of the assessment discourse of flight examiners. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 24, 210–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mavin, T. J., Roth, W.-M., & Dekker, S. (2013). Understanding variance in pilot performance ratings: Two studies of flight examiners, captains and first officers assessing the performance of peers. Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors, 3, 53–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McKone, E., & French, B. (2001). In what sense is implicit memory “episodic”? The effect of reinstating environmental context. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8, 806–811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S., & Baumgartner, L. M. (2007). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide. San Francisco, CA: Wiley.Google Scholar
  33. Munro, I., & Mavin, T. J. (2012, November). Crawl-walk-run. In Proceedings of the 10th international symposium of the Australian Aviation Psychology Association. Sydney, Australia: AAvPA.Google Scholar
  34. O’Connell, T. S., & Dyment, J. E. (2011). The case of reflective journals: Is the jury still out? Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 12, 47–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rajkomar, A., & Blandford, A. (2012). Understanding infusion administration in the ICU through distributed cognition. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 45, 580–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Riebe, L., & Jackson, D. (2014). The use of rubrics in benchmarking and assessing employability skills. Journal of Management Education, 38, 319–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Roediger, H. L. (1990). Implicit memory: Retention without remembering. American Psychologist, 45(9), 1043–1056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Roth, W.-M. (1995). Authentic school science. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Roth, W.-M., & Jornet, A. (2013). Toward a theory of experience. Science Education, 98, 106–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Roth, W.-M., & Mavin, T. J. (2015). Peer assessment of aviation performance: Inconsistent for good reasons. Cognitive Science. doi: 10.1111/cogs.12152.Google Scholar
  41. Roth, W.-M., Mavin, T. J., Munro, I. (2014). How a cockpit forgets speeds (and speed-related events): Toward a kinetic description of joint cognitive systems. Cognition, Technology and Work 2, 1–21.Google Scholar
  42. Rowe, M. B. (1986). Wait time: Slowing down may be a way of speeding up! Journal of Teacher Education, 37, 43–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Scherer, L. A., Chang, M. C., Meredith, J. W., & Battistella, F. D. (2003). Videotape review leads to rapid and sustained learning. American Journal of Surgery, 185, 516–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  45. Schön, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  46. Sheets-Johnstone, M. (2011). The primacy of movement. [DX Reader version]. Retrieved from http://librarycatalogue.griffith.edu.au/record=b1932512.
  47. Sitzmann, T., Ely, K., Brown, K. G., & Bauer, K. N. (2010). Self-assessment of knowledge: A cognitive learning or affective measure? Academy of Management Learning & Education, 9, 169–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tannenbaum, S. I., & Cerasoli, C. P. (2013). Do team and individual debriefs enhance performance? A meta-analysis. Human Factors, 55, 231–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Thompson, N., & Pascal, J. (2012). Developing critically reflective practice. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 13, 311–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Thorsen, C. A., & DeVore, S. (2013). Analyzing reflection on/for action: A new approach. Reflective Practice, 14, 88–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Todd, G. (2005). Reflective practice and Socratic dialogue. In C. Johns & D. Freshwater (Eds.), Transforming nursing through reflective practice (pp. 38–54). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  52. Ward, M., MacRae, H., Schlachta, C., Mamazz, J., Poulin, E., Reznick, R., et al. (2003). Resident self-assessment of operative performance. American Journal of Surgery, 185, 521–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Woehr, D. J., & Huffcutt, A. I. (1994). Rater training for performance appraisal: A quantitative review. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 67, 189–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Griffith Institute for Educational ResearchGriffith UniversityNathanAustralia

Personalised recommendations