Advertisement

Learning to Work Together Through Talk: Continuing Professional Development in Medicine

  • Walter EppichEmail author
  • Jan-Joost Rethans
  • Pim W. Teunissen
  • Tim Dornan
Chapter
Part of the Professional and Practice-based Learning book series (PPBL, volume 16)

Abstract

This chapter highlights the essential role of discourse in learning and the development of physicians’ professional identity. Shared understanding and co-construction of clinical experiences—and learning—are mediated through talk. We argue how contemporary continuing professional development focuses on knowledge acquisition that is divorced from authentic clinical practice. We provide examples of structures that strengthen collective learning processes and steer the discourse of practice in ways that promote learning. Patient focused-quality improvement projects and simulations aligned to workplace needs could meet the requirement for continuous professional development to be both measurable and linked to authentic practice. Future work could usefully further explore how steering the talk of practice can promote learning.

Keywords

Professional Identity Continue Professional Development Healthcare Team Learning Workplace Medical Trainee 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Archer, J., & de Bere, S. R. (2013). The United Kingdom’s experience with and future plans for revalidation. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 33(Suppl 1), S48–S53. doi: 10.1002/chp.21206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashley, P., Rhodes, N., Sari-Kouzel, H., Mukherjee, A., & Dornan, T. (2009). ‘They’ve all got to learn’. Medical students’ learning from patients in ambulatory (outpatient and general practice) consultations. Medical Teacher, 31(2), e24–e31. doi: 10.1080/01421590802464445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barr, H. (2009). An anatomy of continuing interprofessional education. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 29(3), 147–150. doi: 10.1002/chp.20027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beach, C., Cheung, D. S., Apker, J., Horwitz, L. I., Howell, E. E., O’Leary, K. J., et al. (2012). Improving interunit transitions of care between emergency physicians and hospital medicine physicians: A conceptual approach. Academic Emergency Medicine, 19(10), 1188–1195. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2012.01448.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bigham, M. T., Logsdon, T. R., Manicone, P. E., Landrigan, C. P., Hayes, L. W., Randall, K. H., … . Sharek, P. J. (2014). Decreasing handoff-related care failures in children’s hospitals. Pediatrics, 134(2), e572–e579. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-1844.
  6. Billett, S. (1996). Towards a model of workplace learning: The learning curriculum. Studies in Continuing Education, 18(1), 43–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Billett, S. (2000). Guided learning at work. Journal of Workplace Learning, 12(7), 272–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Billett, S. (2001a). Knowing in practice: Re-conceptualising vocational expertise. Learning and Instruction, 11(8), 431–452Google Scholar
  9. Billett, S. (2001b). Learning through work: Workplace affordances and individual engagement. Journal of Workplace Learning, 13(5), 209–214.Google Scholar
  10. Billett, S. (2001c). Participation and continuity at work: A critique of current workplace learning discourses. Paper presented at the Context, Power, and Perspective: Confronting Challenges to Improving Attainment in Learning at Work. Joint Network/SKOPE/TLRP International Workshop November 8–10, 2001., Sunley Management Centre, University College of Northampton. Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/archives/e-texts/billett_workplace_learning.htm
  11. Billett, S. (2004). Workplace participatory practices. Journal of Workplace Learning, 16(6), 312–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Billett, S. R. (2014). Securing intersubjectivity through interprofessional workplace learning experiences. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 28(3), 206–211. doi: 10.3109/13561820.2014.890580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bleakley, A. (2006). Broadening conceptions of learning in medical education: The message from teamworking. Medical Education, 40(2), 150–157. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02371.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bleakley, A. (2013a). The dislocation of medical dominance: Making space for interprofessional care. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 27(Suppl 2), 24–30. doi: 10.3109/13561820.2013.791672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bleakley, A. (2013b). Working in “teams” in an era of “liquid” healthcare: What is the use of theory? Journal of Interprofessional Care, 27(1), 18–26. doi: 10.3109/13561820.2012.699479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bleakley, A., Bligh, J., & Browne, J. (2011). Medical education for the future: Identify, power and location. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media B.V.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bleakley, A., Boyden, J., Hobbs, A., Walsh, L., & Allard, J. (2006). Improving teamwork climate in operating theatres: The shift from multiprofessionalism to interprofessionalism. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 20(5), 461–470. doi: 10.1080/13561820600921915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bligh, J., & Bleakley, A. (2006). Distributing menus to hungry learners: Can learning by simulation become simulation of learning? Medical Teacher, 28(7), 606–613. doi: 10.1080/01421590601042335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bok, H. G., Teunissen, P. W., Spruijt, A., Fokkema, J. P., van Beukelen, P., Jaarsma, D. A., et al. (2013). Clarifying students’ feedback-seeking behaviour in clinical clerkships. Medical Education, 47(3), 282–291. doi: 10.1111/medu.12054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Boor, K., Teunissen, P. W., Scherpbier, A. J., van der Vleuten, C. P., van de Lande, J., & Scheele, F. (2008). Residents’ perceptions of the ideal clinical teacher—A qualitative study. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 140(2), 152–157. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2008.03.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Boor, K., Van Der Vleuten, C., Teunissen, P., Scherpbier, A., & Scheele, F. (2011). Development and analysis of D-RECT, an instrument measuring residents’ learning climate. Medical Teacher, 33(10), 820–827. doi: 10.3109/0142159x.2010.541533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Boreham, N. (2004). A theory of collective competence: Challenging the neo-liberal individualisation of performance at work. British Journal of Educational Studies, 52(1), 5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bosk, C. L., Dixon-Woods, M., Goeschel, C. A., & Pronovost, P. J. (2009). Reality check for checklists. Lancet, 374(9688), 444–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brancati, F. L. (1989). The art of pimping. Journal of the American Medical Association, 262(1), 89–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 32–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Burford, B. (2012). Group processes in medical education: Learning from social identity theory. Medical Education, 46(2), 143–152. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04099.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Campbell, C. M., & Parboosingh, J. (2013). The Royal College experience and plans for the maintenance of certification program. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 33(Suppl 1), S36–S47. doi: 10.1002/chp.21205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cheng, A., Eppich, W., Grant, V., Sherbino, J., Zendejas, B., & Cook, D. A. (2014). Debriefing for technology-enhanced simulation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medical Education, 48(7), 657–666. doi: 10.1111/medu.12432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cheung, D. S., Kelly, J. J., Beach, C., Berkeley, R. P., Bitterman, R. A., Broida, R. I., et al. (2010). Improving handoffs in the emergency department. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 55(2), 171–180. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2009.07.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cleland, J. A., Abe, K., & Rethans, J. J. (2009). The use of simulated patients in medical education: AMEE guide No 42. Medical Teacher, 32, 477–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cohen, M. D., & Hilligoss, P. B. (2010). The published literature on handoffs in hospitals: Deficiencies identified in an extensive review. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 19(6), 493–497. doi: 10.1136/qshc.2009.033480.Google Scholar
  32. Cohen, M. D., Hilligoss, B., & Kajdacsy-Balla Amaral, A. C. (2012). A handoff is not a telegram: An understanding of the patient is co-constructed. Critical Care, 16(1), 303. doi: 10.1186/cc10536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cooke, M., Irby, D. M., & O’Brien, B. C. (2010). Educating physicians: A call for reform of medical school and residency. San Francisco, CL: Josey-Bass.Google Scholar
  34. Cosby, K. S., & Croskerry, P. (2004). Profiles in patient safety: Authority gradients in medical error. Academic Emergency Medicine, 11(12), 1341–1345. doi: 10.1197/j.aem.2004.07.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Davis, D., O’Brien, M. A., Freemantle, N., Wolf, F. M., Mazmanian, P., & Taylor-Vaisey, A. (1999). Impact of formal continuing medical education: Do conferences, workshops, rounds, and other traditional continuing education activities change physician behavior or health care outcomes? Journal of the American Medical Association, 282(9), 867–874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Davis, N., Davis, D., & Bloch, R. (2008). Continuing medical education: AMEE Education Guide No 35. Medical Teacher, 30(7), 652–666. doi: 10.1080/01421590802108323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Derkx, H., Rethans, J. J., Maiburg, B., Winkens, R., & Knottnerus, A. (2009). New methodology for using incognito standardised patients for telephone consultation in primary care. Medical Education, 43(1), 82–88. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2008.03177.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Detert, J. R., & Edmondson, A. C. (2011). Implicit voice theories: Taken-for-granted rules of self-censorship at work. Academy of Management Journal, 54(3), 461–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Diemers, A. D., Dolmans, D. H., Van Santen, M., Van Luijk, S. J., Janssen-Noordman, A. M., & Scherpbier, A. J. (2007). Students’ perceptions of early patient encounters in a PBL curriculum: A first evaluation of the Maastricht experience. Medical Teacher, 29(2–3), 135–142. doi: 10.1080/01421590601177990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dixon-Woods, M., Bosk, C. L., Aveling, E. L., Goeschel, C. A., & Pronovost, P. J. (2011). Explaining Michigan: Developing an ex post theory of a quality improvement program. Milbank Quarterly, 89(2), 167–205. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0009.2011.00625.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dixon-Woods, M., Leslie, M., Tarrant, C., & Bion, J. (2013). Explaining Matching Michigan: An ethnographic study of a patient safety program. Implementation Science, 8, 70. doi: 10.1186/1748-5908-8-70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dornan, T. (2005). Osler, Flexner, apprenticeship and ‘the new medical education’. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 98(3), 91–95. doi: 10.1258/jrsm.98.3.91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dornan, T., Arno, M., Hadfield, J., Scherpbier, A., & Boshuizen, H. (2006). Student evaluation of the clinical ‘curriculum in action’. Medical Education, 40(7), 667–674. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02507.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dornan, T., Boshuizen, H., King, N., & Scherpbier, A. (2007). Experience-based learning: A model linking the processes and outcomes of medical students’ workplace learning. Medical Education, 41(1), 84–91. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02652.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dornan, T., & Bundy, C. (2004). What can experience add to early medical education? Consensus survey. British Medical Journal, 329(7470), 834. doi: 10.1136/bmj.329.7470.834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dornan, T., Littlewood, S., Margolis, S. A., Scherpbier, A., Spencer, J., & Ypinazar, V. (2006). How can experience in clinical and community settings contribute to early medical education? A BEME systematic review. Medical Teacher, 28(1), 3–18. doi: 10.1080/01421590500410971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Draycott, T. J., Crofts, J. F., Ash, J. P., Wilson, L. V., Yard, E., Sibanda, T., et al. (2008). Improving neonatal outcome through practical shoulder dystocia training. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 112(1), 14–20. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31817bbc61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Durning, S. J., & Artino, A. R. (2011). Situativity theory: A perspective on how participants and the environment can interact: AMEE Guide no. 52. Medical Teacher, 33(3), 188–199. doi: 10.3109/0142159x.2011.550965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Edmondson, A. C. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44, 350–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Edmondson, A. C. (2012). Teaming: How organizations learn, innovate, and compete in the knowledge economy. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass: A Wiley Imprint.Google Scholar
  51. Eppich, W. (2015). “Speaking up” for patient safety in the pediatric emergency department. Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 16(2), 83–89. doi: 10.1016/j.cpem.2015.04.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Eppich, W., & Cheng, A. (2015). Promoting excellence and reflective learning in simulation (PEARLS): Development and rationale for a blended approach to health care simulation debriefing. Simulation in Healthcare, 10(2), 106–115. doi: 10.1097/sih.0000000000000072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Eppich, W., Howard, V., Vozenilek, J., & Curran, I. (2011). Simulation-based team training in healthcare. Simulation in Healthcare, 6(Suppl), S14–S19. doi: 10.1097/SIH.0b013e318229f550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Eppich, W., Nypaver, M. M., Mahajan, P., Denmark, K. T., Kennedy, C., Joseph, M. M., et al. (2013). The role of high-fidelity simulation in training pediatric emergency medicine fellows in the United States and Canada. Pediatric Emergency Care, 29(1), 1–7. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e31827b20d0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Eraut, M. (2000). Non-formal learning and tacit knowledge in professional work. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 113–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Eraut, M. (2004). Informal learning in the workplace. Studies in Continuing Education, 26(2), 247–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Eraut, M. (2007). Learning from other people in the workplace. Oxford Review of Education, 33(4), 403–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fanning, R. M., & Gaba, D. M. (2007). The role of debriefing in simulation-based learning. Simulation in Healthcare, 2(2), 115–125. doi: 10.1097/SIH.0b013e3180315539 [doi] 01266021-200700220-00007 [pii].CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Flin, R. (2010). Rudeness at work. British Medical Journal, 340, c2480. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c2480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. GMC (2012). Continuous professional development: Guidance for all doctors. Retrieved from: http://www.gmc-uk.org/Continuing_professional_development___guidance_for_all_doctors_1114.pdf_56438625.pdf
  61. Goldszmidt, M., Aziz, N., & Lingard, L. (2012). Taking a detour: Positive and negative effects of supervisors’ interruptions during admission case review discussions. Academic Medicine, 87(10), 1382–1388. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3182675b08.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gopwani, P. R., Brown, K. M., Quinn, M. J., Dorosz, E. J., & Chamberlain, J. M. (2015). SOUND: A structured handoff tool improves patient handoffs in a pediatric emergency department. Pediatric Emergency Care, 31(2), 83–87. doi: 10.1097/pec.0000000000000347.Google Scholar
  63. Haber, R. J., & Lingard, L. A. (2001). Learning oral presentation skills: A rhetorical analysis with pedagogical and professional implications. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(5), 308–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hammick, M., Olckers, L., & Campion-Smith, C. (2009). Learning in interprofessional teams: AMEE Guide no 38. Medical Teacher, 31(1), 1–12. doi: 10.1080/01421590802585561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hawkins, R. E., Lipner, R. S., Ham, H. P., Wagner, R., & Holmboe, E. S. (2013). American Board of Medical Specialties Maintenance of Certification: Theory and evidence regarding the current framework. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 33(Suppl 1), S7–S19. doi: 10.1002/chp.21201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Haynes, A. B., Weiser, T. G., Berry, W. R., Lipsitz, S. R., Breizat, A. H., Dellinger, E. P., et al. (2009). A surgical safety checklist to reduce morbidity and mortality in a global population. New England Journal of Medicine, 360(5), 491–499. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa0810119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Henn, P., Power, D., Smith, S. D., Power, T., Hynes, H., Gaffney, R., et al. (2012). A metric-based analysis of structure and content of telephone consultations of final-year medical students in a high-fidelity emergency medicine simulation. BMJ Open, 2(5), e001298. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hilligoss, B. (2014). Selling patients and other metaphors: A discourse analysis of the interpretive frames that shape emergency department admission handoffs. Social Science & Medicine, 102, 119–128. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.11.034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hilligoss, B., & Cohen, M. D. (2013). The unappreciated challenges of between-unit handoffs: Negotiating and coordinating across boundaries. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 61(2), 155–160. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2012.04.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hodges, B. (2006). Medical education and the maintenance of incompetence. Medical Teacher, 28(8), 690–696. doi: 10.1080/01421590601102964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Holmboe, E. S. (2013). Maintenance of certification, revalidation, and professional self-regulation. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 33(Suppl 1), S63–S66. doi: 10.1002/chp.21204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Iedema, R., & Scheeres, H. (2003). From doing work to talking work: Renegotiating knowing, doing, and identity. Applied Linguisitics, 24(3), 316–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. James, J. T. (2013). A new, evidence-based estimate of patient harms associated with hospital care. Journal of Patient Safety, 9(3), 122–128. doi: 10.1097/PTS.0b013e3182948a69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Janss, R., Rispens, S., Segers, M., & Jehn, K. A. (2012). What is happening under the surface? Power, conflict and the performance of medical teams. Medical Education, 46(9), 838–849. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2012.04322.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kennedy, T. J., & Lingard, L. A. (2007). Questioning competence: A discourse analysis of attending physicians’ use of questions to assess trainee competence. Academic Medicine, 82(10 Suppl), S12–S15. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e318140168f.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kennedy, T. J., Regehr, G., Baker, G. R., & Lingard, L. (2009). Preserving professional credibility: Grounded theory study of medical trainees’ requests for clinical support. British Medical Journal, 338, b128. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kessler, C., Scott, N. L., Siedsma, M., Jordan, J., Beach, C., & Coletti, C. M. (2014). Interunit handoffs of patients and transfers of information: A survey of current practices. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 64(4), 343–349.e345. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2014.04.022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kessler, C., Shakeel, F., Hern, H. G., Jones, J. S., Comes, J., Kulstad, C., et al. (2014). A survey of handoff practices in emergency medicine. American Journal of Medical Quality, 29(5), 408–414. doi: 10.1177/1062860613503364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kessler, D. O., Cheng, A., & Mullan, P. C. (2014). Debriefing in the emergency department after clinical events: A practical guide. Annals of Emergency Medicine. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2014.10.019.Google Scholar
  80. Kitto, S. (2010). Evidence-based checklists: Intended and unintended consequences for interprofessional care. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 24(6), 609–611. doi: 10.3109/13561820.2010.527195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kitto, S., Bell, M., Peller, J., Sargeant, J., Etchells, E., Reeves, S., et al. (2013). Positioning continuing education: Boundaries and intersections between the domains continuing education, knowledge translation, patient safety and quality improvement. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 18(1), 141–156. doi: 10.1007/s10459-011-9340-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kitto, S., Goldman, J., Etchells, E., Silver, I., Peller, J., Sargeant, J., et al. (2015). Quality improvement, patient safety, and continuing education: A qualitative study of the current boundaries and opportunities for collaboration between these domains. Academic Medicine, 90(2), 240–245. doi: 10.1097/acm.0000000000000596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kitto, S., Goldman, J., Schmitt, M. H., & Olson, C. A. (2014). Examining the intersections between continuing education, interprofessional education and workplace learning. Journal Interprofessional Care, 28(3), 183–185. doi: 10.3109/13561820.2014.906737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kitto, S., & Grant, R. (2014). Revisiting evidence-based checklists: Interprofessionalism, safety culture and collective competence. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 28(5), 390–392. doi: 10.3109/13561820.2014.916089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kitto, S., Marshall, S. D., McMillan, S. E., Shearer, B., Buist, M., Grant, R., et al. (2014). Rapid response systems and collective (in)competence: An exploratory analysis of intraprofessional and interprofessional activation factors. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 29(4), 340–346. doi: 10.3109/13561820.2014.984021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kitto, S. C., Gruen, R. L., & Smith, J. A. (2009). Imagining a continuing interprofessional education program (CIPE) within surgical training. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 29(3), 185–189. doi: 10.1002/chp.20034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kohn, L., Corrigan, J., & Donaldson, M. (2000). To err is human: Building a safer health system. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  88. Kost, A., & Chen, F. M. (2015). Socrates was not a pimp: Changing the paradigm of questioning in medical education. Academic Medicine, 90(1), 20–24. doi: 10.1097/acm.0000000000000446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Leape, L. L., Shore, M. F., Dienstag, J. L., Mayer, R. J., Edgman-Levitan, S., Meyer, G. S., et al. (2012). Perspective: A culture of respect, part 1: The nature and causes of disrespectful behavior by physicians. Academic Medicine, 87(7), 845–852. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e318258338d.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Legare, F., Freitas, A., Thompson-Leduc, P., Borduas, F., Luconi, F., Boucher, A., et al. (2015). The majority of accredited continuing professional development activities do not target clinical behavior change. Academic Medicine, 90(2), 197–202. doi: 10.1097/acm.0000000000000543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lingard, L. (2012). Rethinking competence in the context of teamwork. In B. Hodges & L. Lingard (Eds.), The question of competence (pp. 42–69). Ithaca, NY: ILR Press.Google Scholar
  93. Lingard, L. (2013). Language matters: Towards an understanding of silence and humour in medical education. Medical Education, 47(1), 40–48. doi: 10.1111/medu.12098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lingard, L., Schryer, C., Garwood, K., & Spafford, M. (2003). ‘Talking the talk’: School and workplace genre tension in clerkship case presentations. Medical Education, 37(7), 612–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lingard, L., Espin, S., Whyte, S., Regehr, G., Baker, G. R., Reznick, R., et al. (2004). Communication failures in the operating room: An observational classification of recurrent types and effects. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 13(5), 330–334. doi: 10.1136/qhc.13.5.330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lingard, L., Garwood, K., Schryer, C. F., & Spafford, M. M. (2003). A certain art of uncertainty: Case presentation and the development of professional identity. Social Science & Medicine, 56(3), 603–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lingard, L., McDougall, A., Levstik, M., Chandok, N., Spafford, M. M., & Schryer, C. (2012). Representing complexity well: A story about teamwork, with implications for how we teach collaboration. Medical Education, 46(9), 869–877. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2012.04339.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lingard, L., Reznick, R., DeVito, I., & Espin, S. (2002). Forming professional identities on the health care team: Discursive constructions of the ‘other’ in the operating room. Medical Education, 36(8), 728–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lingard, L., Reznick, R., Espin, S., Regehr, G., & DeVito, I. (2002). Team communications in the operating room: Talk patterns, sites of tension, and implications for novices. Academic Medicine, 77(3), 232–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Lingard, L., Schryer, C., Garwood, K., & Spafford, M. (2003). ‘Talking the talk’: School and workplace genre tension in clerkship case presentations. Medical Education, 37(7), 612–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Littlewood, S., Ypinazar, V., Margolis, S. A., Scherpbier, A., Spencer, J., & Dornan, T. (2005). Early practical experience and the social responsiveness of clinical education: Systematic review. British Medical Journal, 331(7513), 387–391. doi: 10.1136/bmj.331.7513.387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Luten, R., Wears, R. L., Broselow, J., Croskerry, P., Joseph, M. M., & Frush, K. (2002). Managing the unique size-related issues of pediatric resuscitation: Reducing cognitive load with resuscitation aids. Academic Emergency Medicine, 9(8), 840–847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Manser, T. (2011). Minding the gaps: Moving handover research forward. European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 28(9), 613–615. doi: 10.1097/EJA.0b013e3283459292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Manser, T., Foster, S., Flin, R., & Patey, R. (2013). Team communication during patient handover from the operating room: More than facts and figures. Human Factors, 55(1), 138–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Manser, T., Foster, S., Gisin, S., Jaeckel, D., & Ummenhofer, W. (2010). Assessing the quality of patient handoffs at care transitions. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 19(6), e44. doi: 10.1136/qshc.2009.038430.Google Scholar
  106. Martin, G. C., & Wells, D. M. (2014). Nothing artful about the term ‘pimping’. Medical Education, 48(10), 1028. doi: 10.1111/medu.12528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Maughan, B. C., Lei, L., & Cydulka, R. K. (2011). ED handoffs: Observed practices and communication errors. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 29(5), 502–511. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2009.12.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Maxfield, D., Grenny, J., Lavandero, R., & Groah, L. (2011). The silent treatment: Why safety tools and checklists aren’t enough to save lives. Retrieved from: http://www.silenttreatmentstudy.com/
  109. Mazmanian, P. E., Davis, D. A., & Galbraith, R. (2009). Continuing medical education effect on clinical outcomes: Effectiveness of continuing medical education: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Educational Guidelines. Chest, 135(3 Suppl), 49s–55s. doi: 10.1378/chest.08-2518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Milliken, F. J., & Morrison, E. (2003). Shades of silence: Emerging themes and future directions for research on silence in organizations. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1563–1568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Monrouxe, L. V. (2010). Identity, identification and medical education: Why should we care? Medical Education, 44(1), 40–49. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03440.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Morrison, E. W. (2011). Employee voice behavior: Integration and directions for future research. Academy of Management Annals, 5(1), 373–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Muething, S. E., Kotagal, U. R., Schoettker, P. J., Gonzalez del Rey, J., & DeWitt, T. G. (2007). Family-centered bedside rounds: A new approach to patient care and teaching. Pediatrics, 119(4), 829–832. doi: 10.1542/peds.2006-2528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Musselman, L. J., MacRae, H. M., Reznick, R. K., & Lingard, L. A. (2005). ‘You learn better under the gun’: Intimidation and harassment in surgical education. Medical Education, 39(9), 926–934. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02247.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Nugus, P., Bridges, J., & Braithwaite, J. (2009). Selling patients. British Medical Journal, 339, b5201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Nugus, P., Greenfield, D., Travaglia, J., Westbrook, J., & Braithwaite, J. (2010). How and where clinicians exercise power: Interprofessional relations in health care. Social Science & Medicine, 71(5), 898–909. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.05.029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Nugus, P., Holdgate, A., Fry, M., Forero, R., McCarthy, S., & Braithwaite, J. (2011). Work pressure and patient flow management in the emergency department: Findings from an ethnographic study. Academic Emergency Medicine, 18(10), 1045–1052. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2011.01171.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. O’Leary, K. J., Buck, R., Fligiel, H. M., Haviley, C., Slade, M. E., Landler, M. P., et al. (2011). Structured interdisciplinary rounds in a medical teaching unit: Improving patient safety. Archives of Internal Medicine, 171(7), 678–684. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. O’Leary, K. J., Creden, A. J., Slade, M. E., Landler, M. P., Kulkarni, N., Lee, J., et al. (2014). Implementation of unit-based interventions to improve teamwork and patient safety on a medical service. American Journal of Medical Quality. doi: 10.1177/1062860614538093.Google Scholar
  120. O’Leary, K. J., Haviley, C., Slade, M. E., Shah, H. M., Lee, J., & Williams, M. V. (2011). Improving teamwork: Impact of structured interdisciplinary rounds on a hospitalist unit. Journal of Hospital Medicine, 6(2), 88–93. doi: 10.1002/jhm.714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. O’Leary, K. J., Thompson, J. A., Landler, M. P., Kulkarni, N., Haviley, C., Hahn, K., et al. (2010). Patterns of nurse-physician communication and agreement on the plan of care. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 19(3), 195–199. doi: 10.1136/qshc.2008.030221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. O’Leary, K. J., Wayne, D. B., Haviley, C., Slade, M. E., Lee, J., & Williams, M. V. (2010). Improving teamwork: Impact of structured interdisciplinary rounds on a medical teaching unit. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25(8), 826–832. doi: 10.1007/s11606-010-1345-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. O’Leary, K. J., & Woods, D. M. (2014). Making the potential benefit of teamwork training a reality. Journal of Hospital Medicine, 9(3), 201–202. doi: 10.1002/jhm.2142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. O’Neil, K. M., & Addrizzo-Harris, D. J. (2009). Continuing medical education effect on physician knowledge application and psychomotor skills: Effectiveness of continuing medical education: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Educational Guidelines. Chest, 135(3 Suppl), 37s–41s. doi: 10.1378/chest.08-2516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Okuyama, A., Wagner, C., & Bijnen, B. (2014). Speaking up for patient safety by hospital-based health care professionals: A literature review. BMC Health Services Research, 14, 61. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-14-61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Patterson, E. S., & Wears, R. L. (2009). Beyond “communication failure”. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 53(6), 711–712. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2008.07.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Patterson, E. S., & Wears, R. L. (2010). Patient handoffs: Standardized and reliable measurement tools remain elusive. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 36(2), 52–61.Google Scholar
  128. Peck, C., McCall, M., McLaren, B., & Rotem, T. (2000). Continuing medical education and continuing professional development: International comparisons. British Medical Journal, 320(7232), 432–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Porath, C. L., & Erez, A. (2009). Overlooked but not untouched: How rudeness reduces onlookers’ performance on routine and creative tasks. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 101(1), 29–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Pronovost, P. (2008). Interventions to decrease catheter-related bloodstream infections in the ICU: The Keystone Intensive Care Unit Project. American Journal of Infection Control, 36(10), S171.e171–S171.e175. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2008.10.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Pronovost, P., Needham, D., Berenholtz, S., Sinopoli, D., Chu, H., Cosgrove, S., et al. (2006). An intervention to decrease catheter-related bloodstream infections in the ICU. New England Journal of Medicine, 355(26), 2725–2732. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa061115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Rainer, J. (2015). Speaking up: Factors and issues in nurses advocating for patients when patients are in jeopardy. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 30(1), 53–62. doi: 10.1097/ncq.0000000000000081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Reason, J. (2000). Human error: Models and management. BMJ, 320(7237), 768–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Reber, A. (1989). Implicit learning and tacit knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 118(3), 219–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Reeves, S., Lewin, S., Espin, S., & Zwarenstein, M. (2010). Interprofessional teamwork for health and social care. Chichester, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Rethans, J. J., Gorter, S., Bokken, L., & Morrison, L. (2007). Unannounced standardised patients in real practice: A systematic literature review. Medical Education, 41(6), 537–549. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02689.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Rowland, P., & Kitto, S. (2014). Patient safety and professional discourses: Implications for interprofessionalism. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 28(4), 331–338. doi: 10.3109/13561820.2014.891574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Salas, E., Cooke, N. J., & Rosen, M. A. (2008). On teams, teamwork, and team performance: Discoveries and developments. Human Factors, 50(3), 540–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Scheeres, H. (2003). Learning to talk: From manual work to discourse work as self-regulating practice. Journal of Workplace Learning, 15(7/8), 332–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sfard, A. (1998). On two metaphors for learning and the dangers of choosing just one. Educational Researcher, 27(2), 4–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Sharma, S., Boet, S., Kitto, S., & Reeves, S. (2011). Interprofessional simulated learning: The need for ‘sociological fidelity’. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 25(2), 81–83. doi: 10.3109/13561820.2011.556514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Sheehan, D., Wilkinson, T. J., & Billett, S. (2005). Interns’ participation and learning in clinical environments in a New Zealand hospital. Academic Medicine, 80(3), 302–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Sole, M., Panteli, D., Risso-Gill, I., Doring, N., Busse, R., McKee, M., et al. (2014). How do medical doctors in the European Union demonstrate that they continue to meet criteria for registration and licencing? Clinical Medicine, 14(6), 633–639. doi: 10.7861/clinmedicine.14-6-633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Starmer, A. J., O’Toole, J. K., Rosenbluth, G., Calaman, S., Balmer, D., West, D. C., et al. (2014). Development, implementation, and dissemination of the I-PASS handoff curriculum: A multisite educational intervention to improve patient handoffs. Academic Medicine, 89(6), 876–884. doi: 10.1097/acm.0000000000000264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Starmer, A. J., Sectish, T. C., Simon, D. W., Keohane, C., McSweeney, M. E., Chung, E. Y., et al. (2013). Rates of medical errors and preventable adverse events among hospitalized children following implementation of a resident handoff bundle. Journal of the American Medical Association, 310(21), 2262–2270. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.281961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Starmer, A. J., Spector, N. D., Srivastava, R., Allen, A. D., Landrigan, C. P., & Sectish, T. C. (2012). I-pass, a mnemonic to standardize verbal handoffs. Pediatrics, 129(2), 201–204. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-2966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Starmer, A. J., Spector, N. D., Srivastava, R., West, D. C., Rosenbluth, G., Allen, A. D., et al. (2014). Changes in medical errors after implementation of a handoff program. New England Journal of Medicine, 371(19), 1803–1812. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa1405556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Stein, J., Payne, C., Methvin, A., Bonsall, J. M., Chadwick, L., Clark, D., et al. (2015). Reorganizing a hospital ward as an accountable care unit. Journal of Hospital Medicine, 10(1), 36–40. doi: 10.1002/jhm.2284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Steven, K., Wenger, E., Boshuizen, H., Scherpbier, A., & Dornan, T. (2014). How clerkship students learn from real patients in practice settings. Academic Medicine, 89(3), 469–476. doi: 10.1097/acm.0000000000000129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Sutcliffe, K. M., Lewton, E., & Rosenthal, M. M. (2004). Communication failures: An insidious contributor to medical mishaps. Academic Medicine, 79(2), 186–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Swanwick, T. (2005). Informal learning in postgraduate medical education: From cognitivism to ’culturism’. Medical Education, 39(8), 859–865. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02224.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Teunissen, P. W. (2014). When i say … intersubjectivity. Medical Education, 48(4), 349–350. doi: 10.1111/medu.12299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Teunissen, P. W. (2015). Experience, trajectories, and reifications: An emerging framework of practice-based learning in healthcare workplaces. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 20(4):843–856. doi: 10.1007/s10459-014-9556-y.
  154. Teunissen, P. W., Scheele, F., Scherpbier, A. J., van der Vleuten, C. P., Boor, K., van Luijk, S. J., et al. (2007). How residents learn: Qualitative evidence for the pivotal role of clinical activities. Medical Education, 41(8), 763–770. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2007.02778.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Teunissen, P. W., Stapel, D. A., van der Vleuten, C., Scherpbier, A., Boor, K., & Scheele, F. (2009). Who wants feedback? An investigation of the variables influencing residents’ feedback-seeking behavior in relation to night shifts. Academic Medicine, 84(7), 910–917. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181a858ad.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Thistlethwaite, J. (2012). Interprofessional education: A review of context, learning and the research agenda. Medical Education, 46(1), 58–70. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04143.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Tofil, N. M., Morris, J. L., Peterson, D. T., Watts, P., Epps, C., Harrington, K. F., et al. (2014). Interprofessional simulation training improves knowledge and teamwork in nursing and medical students during internal medicine clerkship. Journal of Hospital Medicine, 9(3), 189–192. doi: 10.1002/jhm.2126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. van der Zwet, J., de la Croix, A., de Jonge, L. P., Stalmeijer, R. E., Scherpbier, A. J., & Teunissen, P. W. (2014). The power of questions: A discourse analysis about doctor-student interaction. Medical Education, 48(8), 806–819. doi: 10.1111/medu.12493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. van der Zwet, J., Dornan, T., Teunissen, P. W., de Jonge, L. P., & Scherpbier, A. J. (2014). Making sense of how physician preceptors interact with medical students: Discourses of dialogue, good medical practice, and relationship trajectories. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 19(1), 85–98. doi: 10.1007/s10459-013-9465-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., & Botero, I. C. (2003). Conceptualizing employee silence and employee voice as multidimensional constructs. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1359–1392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Weaver, S. J., Lyons, R., DiazGranados, D., Rosen, M. A., Salas, E., Oglesby, J., et al. (2010). The anatomy of health care team training and the state of practice: A critical review. Academic Medicine, 85(11), 1746–1760. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181f2e907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Weaver, S. J., Salas, E., Lyons, R., Lazzara, E. H., Rosen, M. A., Diazgranados, D., et al. (2010). Simulation-based team training at the sharp end: A qualitative study of simulation-based team training design, implementation, and evaluation in healthcare. Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock, 3(4), 369–377. doi: 10.4103/0974-2700.70754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Weller, J., Boyd, M., & Cumin, D. (2014). Teams, tribes and patient safety: Overcoming barriers to effective teamwork in healthcare. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 90(1061), 149–154. doi: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2012-131168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. WHO (2010). Framework for action on interprofessional education and collaborative practice., pp. 1–64. Retrieved from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2010/WHO_HRH_HPN_10.3_eng.pdf?ua=1
  165. Wolfe, H., Zebuhr, C., Topjian, A. A., Nishisaki, A., Niles, D. E., Meaney, P. A., et al. (2014). Interdisciplinary ICU cardiac arrest debriefing improves survival outcomes*. Critical Care Medicine, 42(7), 1688–1695. doi: 10.1097/ccm.0000000000000327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Yardley, S., Teunissen, P. W., & Dornan, T. (2012). Experiential learning: AMEE Guide No. 63. Medical Teacher, 34(2), e102–e115. doi: 10.3109/0142159x.2012.650741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter Eppich
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jan-Joost Rethans
    • 3
  • Pim W. Teunissen
    • 3
    • 4
  • Tim Dornan
    • 3
    • 5
  1. 1.Northwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  3. 3.School of Health Professions Education (SHE)Maastricht UniversityMaastrichtThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyVU University Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Queens University BelfastBelfastUK

Personalised recommendations