Advertisement

Continuing Education and Training: Needs, Models and Approaches

  • Sarojni ChoyEmail author
  • Stephen Billett
  • Darryl Dymock
Chapter
Part of the Professional and Practice-based Learning book series (PPBL, volume 16)

Abstract

This chapter sets out the context, framing, procedures and broad outcomes of a 3-year investigation of continuing education and training in Australia. The investigation sought to identify what might comprise approaches to and models of continuing education and training that might be applied across Australia, nationally, its regions and industry sectors. The aims of these approaches are to: (i) assist individuals sustain and develop further their workplace competence and secure advancement across lengthening working lives; (ii) address the needs of competent industry workforces, (iii) make workplaces safe and productive sites of employment and learning, and (iv) provide communities with the kinds of skills they require. In this way, these goals for continuing education and training are about supporting individuals’ employability and sustaining the social and economic viability of workplaces, industry sectors and communities. Specifically, the challenge for the investigation reported here was to identify a set of models through which continuing education and training provisions could be planned, implemented, supported and evaluated to achieve these goals. A key finding of the investigation was that most categories of workers interviewed preferred to continue to learn about their work learning through that work and as part of their work activities. These informants reported that much of this learning was secured by individuals through their everyday work activities, but often supported by other workers or experts present at the work site. In contrast, their managers and employers tended to prefer training programs to bring about particular changes and secure particular kinds of learning associated with workplace goals.

References

  1. Beddie, F., Creaser, M., Hargreaves, J., & Ong, A. (2014). Readiness to meet demand for skills: A study of five growth industries. Adelaide, Australia: NCVER.Google Scholar
  2. Billett, S. (2001). Learning in the workplace: Strategies for effective practice. Crows Nest, Australia: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  3. Billett, S. (2008). Learning throughout working life: A relational interdependence between social and individual agency. British Journal of Education Studies, 55(1), 39–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Billett, S., Choy, S., Dymock, D., Smith, R., Henderson, A., Tyler, M., et al. (2014). Towards more effective continuing education and training for Australian workers. Adelaide, Australia: NCVER.Google Scholar
  5. Billett, S., Dymock, D., Johnson, G., & Martin, G. (2011). Overcoming the paradox of employers’ views about older workers. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(6), 1248–1261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Billett, S., Henderson, A., Choy, S., Dymock, D., Beven, F., Kelly, A., et al. (2012a). Change, work and learning: Aligning continuing education and training – Working paper. Adelaide, Australia: NCVER.Google Scholar
  7. Billett, S., Henderson, A., Choy, S., Dymock, D., Beven, F., Kelly, A., et al. (2012b). Continuing education and training models and strategies: An initial appraisal. Adelaide, Australia: NCVER.Google Scholar
  8. Blåka, G. (2007). How does a newcomer construct identity? A socio‐cultural approach to workplace learning. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 26(1), 59–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bratton, J., Helms Mills, J., Pyrch, T., & Sawchuck, P. (2008). Workplace learning: A critical introduction. Toronto, Canada: Higher Education University of Toronto Press Inc.Google Scholar
  10. Dymock, D., Billett, S., Klieve, H., Johnson, G., & Martin, G. (2012). Mature age ‘white collar’ workers’ training and employability. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 31(2), 171–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eraut, M., & Hirsh, W. (2010). The significance of workplace learning for individuals, groups and organisations. Cardiff, Australia: ESRC Centre on Skills, Knowledge, and Organisational Performance.Google Scholar
  12. Fakhfakh, F., Perotin, V., & Robinson, A. (2011). Workplace change and productivity: Does employee voice make a difference? In S. Hayter (Ed.), The role of collective bargaining in the global economy: Negotiating for social justice (pp. 107–135). Cheltenham, England: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  13. Harris, R., Simons, M., & Maher, K. (2009). New directions in European vocational education and training policy and practice: Lessons for Australia. Adelaide, Australia: NCVER.Google Scholar
  14. Misko, J. (2008). Combining formal, non-formal and informal learning for workforce skill development. Adelaide, Australia: NCVER.Google Scholar
  15. Noonan, P. (2007). Skilling the existing workforce. Canberra, Australia: Australian Industry Group.Google Scholar
  16. Rubenson, K. (2009). The impact of welfare state regimes on barriers to participation in adult education: A bounded agency model. Adult Education Quarterly, 59(3), 187–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Scribner, S. (1984). Studying working intelligence. In B. Rogoff & J. Lave (Eds.), Everyday cognition: Its development in social context (pp. 9–40). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Silverman, M. (2003). Supporting workplace learning: A background paper for IES Research Network members. Brighton, UK: The Institute for Employment Studies.Google Scholar
  19. Skills Australia. (2010). Australian workforce futures. Canberra, Australia: Skills Australia.Google Scholar
  20. Skills Australia. (2011). Skills utilisation: Literature review. Canberra, Australia: Skills Australia.Google Scholar
  21. Slotte, V., Tynjala, P., & Hytonen, T. (2004). How do HRD practitioners describe learning at work? Human Resource Development International, 7(4), 481–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Smith, A., & Billett, S. (2003). Enhancing employers’ expenditure on training. Adelaide, Australia: NCVER.Google Scholar
  23. Smith, R., & Billett, S. (2006). Interdependencies at work: Reflection, performance, dialogue and reward. Journal of Adult and Continuing Education, 12(2), 156–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Smith, R., Dymock, D., & Billett, S. (2013). Developing resilient workers: Learning across working life. International Journal of Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning, 5(2), 85–102.Google Scholar
  25. Tennant, M. & McMullen, C. (2008). The workplace as a site for learning: Challenges and possibilities. WACE/ACEN Asia Pacific conference E-Proceedings, 522–529.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Education and Professional StudiesGriffith UniversityMt. GravattAustralia

Personalised recommendations