Advertisement

Climate Change and Dynamics of Glaciers and Vegetation in the Himalaya: An Overview

  • Udo Schickhoff
  • R. B. Singh
  • Suraj Mal
Chapter

Abstract

Mountains are globally significant as ‘water towers’ of the Earth, as core areas of biodiversity and as source regions for important natural resources and ecosystem services. The ecological integrity of mountain environments is increasingly threatened by global environmental changes including climate change to which physical and ecological systems in mountains are highly vulnerable. Global warming rates have been higher in mountain regions compared to the global mean and have strongly affected the cryosphere, mountain biota and ecosystem processes.

Temperature trends in most Himalayan regions substantially exceed the global mean trend of 0.85 °C between 1880 and 2012, with winter season temperature trends being generally higher than those of other seasons. Precipitation patterns are spatio-temporally differentiated, but show rather decreasing than increasing trends, in particular during summer. On average, glacier mass budgets have been negative for the past five decades, with glaciers in the Himalaya and in the Hindu Kush showing distinct mass losses, while those in the Karakoram are close to balance. Shrinking rates are regionally variable, but often accelerating, corresponding approximately to a W-E gradient of increasing glacier retreat. Biotic responses to current climate change include elevational range shifts of species, intense recruitment of tree species in treeline ecotones and shifts in phenology, resulting in modified structure, composition and functioning of Himalayan ecosystems.

Keywords

Climate warming Glacier retreat Phenology Range shift Treeline Vulnerability 

References

  1. Ageta Y, Naito N, Iwata S, Yabuki H (2003) Glacier distribution in the Himalayas and glacier shrinkage from 1963 to 1993 in the Bhutan Himalayas. Bull Glaciol Res 20:29–40Google Scholar
  2. Anderson JT, Panetta AM, Mitchell-Olds T (2012) Evolutionary and ecological responses to anthropogenic climate change. Plant Physiol 160:1728–1740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Archer DR, Fowler HJ (2004) Spatial and temporal variations in precipitation in the Upper Indus Basin, global teleconnections and hydrological implications. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci Discuss 8:47–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Attri SD, Tyagi A (2010) Climate profile of India. Environment Monitoring and Research Center, India Meteorological Department, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  5. Bahuguna IM, Rathore BP, Brahmbhatt R, Sharma M, Dhar S, Randhawa SS, Kumar K, Romshoo S, Shah RS, Ganjoo K, Ganjoo RK, Ajai (2014) Are the Himalayan glaciers retreating? Curr Sci 106:1008–1013Google Scholar
  6. Bajracharya SR, Mool P (2010) Glaciers, glacial lakes and glacial lake outburst floods in the Mount Everest region, Nepal. Ann Glaciol 50:81–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bajracharya SR, Shrestha B (2011) The status of glaciers in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), KathmanduGoogle Scholar
  8. Bajracharya SR, Maharjan SB, Shrestha F (2011) Glaciers shrinking in Nepal Himalaya. In: Blanco J, Kheradmand H (eds) Climate change: geophysical foundations and ecological effects. InTech, Rijeka, pp 445–458Google Scholar
  9. Bajracharya SR, Maharjan SB, Shrestha F (2014) The status and decadal change of glaciers in Bhutan from the 1980s to 2010 based on satellite data. Ann Glaciol 55:159–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bajracharya SR, Maharjan SB, Shrestha F, Guo W, Liu S, Immerzeel W, Shrestha B (2015) The glaciers of the Hindu Kush Himalayas: current status and observed changes from the 1980s to 2010. Int J Water Resour Dev 31:161–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baker BB, Moseley RK (2007) Advancing treeline and retreating glaciers: implications for conservation in Yunnan, P.R. China. Arct Antarct Alp Res 39:200–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bao WJ, Liu SY, Wei JF, Guo WQ (2015) Glacier changes during the past 40 years in the West Kunlun Shan. J Mt Sci 12:344–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baral P, Kayastha RB, Immerzeel WW, Pradhananga NS, Bhattarai BC, Shahi S, Galos S, Springer C, Joshi SP, Mool PK (2014) Preliminary results of mass-balance observations of Yala Glacier and analysis of temperature and precipitation gradients in Langtang Valley, Nepal. Ann Glaciol 55:9–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Basistha A, Arya DS, Goel NK (2009) Analysis of historical changes in rainfall in the Indian Himalayas. Int J Climatol 29:555–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Basnett S, Kulkarni AV, Bolch T (2013) The influence of debris cover and glacial lakes on the recession of glaciers in Sikkim Himalaya, India. J Glaciol 59:1035–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Beniston M (2000) Environmental change in mountains and uplands. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Beniston M (2006) Mountain weather and climate: a general overview and a focus on climatic change in the Alps. Hydrobiologia 562:3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Beniston M (2012) Is snow in the Alps receding or disappearing? Wiley Interdiscipl Rev: Clim Change 3:349–358Google Scholar
  19. Berthier E, Arnaud Y, Kumar R, Ahmad S, Wagnon P, Chevallier P (2007) Remote sensing estimates of glacier mass balances in the Himachal Pradesh (western Himalaya, India). Remote Sens Environ 108:327–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bhambri R, Bolch T (2009) Glacier mapping: a review with special reference to the Indian Himalayas. Progr Phys Geogr 33:672–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bhambri R, Bolch T, Chaujar RK, Kulshreshtha SC (2011) Glacier changes in the Garhwal Himalaya, India, from 1968 to 2006 based on remote sensing. J Glaciol 57:543–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bhambri R, Bolch T, Chaujar RK (2012) Frontal recession of Gangotri Glacier, Garhwal Himalayas, from 1965 to 2006, measured through high resolution remote sensing data. Curr Sci 102:489–494Google Scholar
  23. Bhutiyani MR (2016a) Climate change in the northwestern Himalayas. In: Joshi R, Kumar K, Palni LMS (eds) Dynamics of climate change and water resources of northwestern Himalaya. Springer, Cham, pp 85–96Google Scholar
  24. Bhutiyani MR (2016b) Spatial and temporal variability of climate change in high-altitude regions of NW Himalaya. In: Singh RB, Schickhoff U, Mal S (eds) Climate change, glacier response, and vegetation dynamics in the Himalaya. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  25. Bhutiyani MR, Kale VS, Pawar NJ (2007) Long-term trends in maximum, minimum and mean annual air temperatures across the northwestern Himalaya during the twentieth century. Clim Change 85:159–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bhutiyani MR, Kale VS, Pawar NJ (2010) Climate change and the precipitation variations in the northwestern Himalaya: 1866–2006. Int J Climatol 30:535–548Google Scholar
  27. Bisht MPS, Rana V, Singh S (2016) Impact of glacial recession on the vegetational cover of Valley of Flowers National Park (a World Heritage Site), Central Himalaya, India. In: Singh RB, Schickhoff U, Mal S (eds) Climate change, glacier response, and vegetation dynamics in the Himalaya. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  28. Bocchiola D, Diolaiuti G (2013) Recent (1980–2009) evidence of climate change in the upper Karakoram, Pakistan. Theor Appl Climatol 113:611–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bolch T, Buchroithner M, Pieczonka T, Kunert A (2008) Planimetric and volumetric glacier changes in the Khumbu Himal, Nepal, since 1962 using Corona, Landsat TM and ASTER data. J Glaciol 54:592–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bolch T, Pieczonka T, Benn DI (2011) Multi-decadal mass loss of glaciers in the Everest area (Nepal Himalaya) derived from stereo imagery. Cryosphere 5:349–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bolch T, Kulkarni A, Kääb A, Huggel C, Paul F, Cogley JG, Frey H, Kargel JS, Fujita K, Scheel M, Bajracharya S, Stoffel M (2012) The state and fate of Himalayan glaciers. Science 336:310–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Borsdorf A, Stötter J, Grabherr G, Bender O, Marchant C, Sanchez A (2015) Impacts and risks of climate change. In: Grover VI, Borsdorf A, Breuste JH, Tiwari PC, Frangetto FW (eds) Impact of global changes on mountains. Responses and adaptations. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 33–76Google Scholar
  33. Brandt JS, Haynes MA, Kuemmerle T, Waller DM, Radeloff VC (2013) Regime shift on the roof of the world: alpine meadows converting to shrublands in the southern Himalayas. Biol Conserv 158:116–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Byers AC (2007) An assessment of contemporary glacier fluctuations in Nepal’s Khumbu Himal using repeat photography. Himal J Sci 4:21–26Google Scholar
  35. Byers AC, Price LW, Price MF (2013) Introduction to mountains. In: Price MF, Byers AC, Friend DA, Kohler T, Price LW (eds) Mountain geography: physical and human dimensions. Univ California Press, Berkeley, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  36. Chand P, Sharma MC, Prasad RN (2016) Heterogeneity in fluctuations of glacier with ice-cover, debris-cover and proglacial-lake in the Upper Ravi Basin, Himachal Himalaya (India) during the past four decades (1971–2013). In: Singh RB, Schickhoff U, Mal S (eds) Climate change, glacier response, and vegetation dynamics in the Himalaya. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  37. Chaudhry QUZ, Mahmood A, Rasul G, Afzaal M (2009) Climate change indicators of Pakistan. Technical report no. PMD-22/2009, Pakistan Meteorological Department, IslamabadGoogle Scholar
  38. Chen IC, Hill JK, Ohlemüller R, Roy DB, Thomas CD (2011) Rapid range shifts of species associated with high levels of climate warming. Science 333:1024–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Chettri N, Shakya B, Thapa R, Sharma E (2008) Status of a protected area system in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas: an analysis of PA coverage. Int J Biodivers Sci Manag 4:164–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Christensen JH, Kanikicharla KK, Aldrian E,An SI, Cavalcanti IFA, de Castro M, Dong W, Goswami P, Hall A, Kanyanga JK, Kitoh A, Kossin J, Lau NC, Renwick J, Stephenson DB, Xie SP, Zhou T (2013) Climate phenomena and their relevance for future regional climate change. In: IPCC, Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, pp 1217–1308Google Scholar
  41. Cogley JG (2011) Present and future states of Himalaya and Karakoram glaciers. Ann Glaciol 52:69–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Copland L, Sylvestre T, Bishop MP, Shroder JF, Seong YB, Owen LA, Bush A, Kamp U (2011) Expanded and recently increased glacier surging in the Karakoram. Arct Antarct Alp Res 43:503–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dagvadorj D, Natsagdorj L, Dorjpurev J, Namkhainyam B (2009) Mongolian assessment report on climate change 2009. Ministry of Environment, Nature and Tourism, MongoliaGoogle Scholar
  44. Dash SK, Jenamani RK, Kalsi SR, Panda SK (2007) Some evidence of climate change in twentieth-century India. Clim Change 85:299–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dash SK, Kulkarni MA, Mohanty UC, Prasad K (2009) Changes in the characteristics of rain events in India. J Geophys Res Atmos 114:D10109. doi: 10.1029/2008JD010572 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. de Jong C (2015) Challenges for mountain hydrology in the third millennium. Front Environ Sci 3:38. doi: 10.3389/fenvs.2015.00038 Google Scholar
  47. Diaz HF, Bradley RS (1997) Temperature variations during the last century at high elevation sites. Clim Change 36:253–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Diaz HF, Grosjean M, Graumlich L (2003) Climate variability and change in high elevation regions: past, present and future. In: Diaz HF (ed) Climate variability and change in high elevation regions: past, present and future. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dimri AP, Dash SK (2012) Wintertime climatic trends in the western Himalayas. Clim Change 111:775–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Diodato N, Bellocchi G, Tartari G (2011) How do Himalayan areas respond to global warming? Int J Climatol 32:975–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dobhal DP, Pratap B (2015) Variable response of glaciers to climate change in Uttarakhand Himalaya, India. In: Joshi R, Kumar K, Palni LMS (eds) Dynamics of climate change and water resources of northwestern Himalaya. Springer, Cham, pp 141–150Google Scholar
  52. Duan K, Yao T, Thompson LG (2006) Response of monsoon precipitation in the Himalayas to global warming. J Geophys Res Atmos 111:D19110. doi: 10.1029/2006JD007084 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Eriksson M, Xu J, Shrestha AB, Vaidya RA, Nepal S, Sandström K (2009) The changing Himalayas. Impact of climate change on water resources and livelihoods in the greater Himalayas. ICIMOD, KathmanduGoogle Scholar
  54. Farhan SB, Zhang Y, Ma Y, Guo Y, Ma N (2015) Hydrological regimes under the conjunction of westerly and monsoon climates: a case investigation in the Astore Basin, northwestern Himalaya. Clim Dynam 44:3015–3032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fowler HJ, Archer DR (2006) Conflicting signals of climatic change in the Upper Indus Basin. J Climate 19:4276–4293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Fujita K (2008) Effect of precipitation seasonality on climatic sensitivity of glacier mass balance. Earth Planet Sci Lett 276:14–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fujita K, Nuimura T (2011) Spatially heterogeneous wastage of Himalayan glaciers. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:14011–14014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fujita K, Nakawo M, Fujii Y, Paudyal P (1997) Changes in glaciers in Hidden Valley, Mukut Himal, Nepal Himalayas, from 1974 to 1994. J Glaciol 43:583–588Google Scholar
  59. Fujita K, Kadota T, Rana B, Kayastha RB, Ageta Y (2001) Shrinkage of Glacier AX010 in Shorong region, Nepal Himalayas in the 1990s. Bull Glaciol Res 18:51–54Google Scholar
  60. Gardelle J, Berthier E, Arnaud Y (2012) Slight mass gain of Karakoram glaciers in the early twenty-first century. Nat Geosci 5:322–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gardelle J, Berthier E, Arnaud Y, Kääb A (2013) Region-wide glacier mass balances over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya during 1999–2011. Cryosphere 7:1885–1886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gardner AS, Moholdt G, Cogley JG, Wouters B, Arendt AA, Wahr J, Berthier E, Hock R, Pfeffer WT, Kaser G, Ligtenberg SRM, Bolch T, Sharp MJ, Hagen JO, van den Broeke MR, Paul F (2013) A reconciled estimate of glacier contributions to sea level rise: 2003 to 2009. Science 340:852–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gautam MR, Timilsina GR, Acharya K (2013) Climate change in the Himalayas. Current state of knowledge, Policy research working paper 6516. The World Bank, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gerlitz L, Conrad O, Thomas A, Böhner J (2014) Warming patterns over the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent lowlands derived from elevation- and bias- corrected ERA-Interim data. Clim Res 58:235–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Giese E, Mossig I, Rybski D, Bunde A (2007) Long-term analysis of air temperature trends in Central Asia. Erdkunde 61:186–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Goda K, Kiyota T, Pokhrel RM, Chiaro G, Katagiri T, Sharma K, Wilkinson S (2015) The 2015 Gorkha Nepal earthquake: insights from earthquake damage survey. Front Built Environ 1:8. doi: 10.3389/fbuil.2015.00008 Google Scholar
  67. Gonzalez P, Neilson RP, Lenihan JM, Drapek RJ (2010) Global patterns in the vulnerability of ecosystems to vegetation shifts due to climate change. Global Ecol Biogeogr 19:755–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gottfried M, Pauli H, Futschik A, Akhalkatsi M, Barančok P, Benito Alonso JL, Coldea G, Dick J, Erschbamer B, Kazakis G, Krajči J, Larsson P, Mallaun M, Michelsen O, Moiseev D, Moiseev P, Molau U, Merzouki A, Nagy L, Nakhutsrishvili G, Pedersen B, Pelino G, Puscas M, Rossi G, Stanisci A, Theurillat JP, Tomaselli M, Villar L, Vittoz P, Vogiatzakis I, Grabherr G (2012) Continent-wide response of mountain vegetation to climate change. Nat Clim Change 2:111–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Grabherr G, Gottfried M, Gruber A, Pauli H (1995) Patterns and current changes in alpine plant diversity. In: Chapin FS III, Körner C (eds) Arctic and alpine biodiversity: patterns, causes and ecosystem consequences. Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg, pp 167–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Grabherr G, Gottfried M, Pauli H (2001) High mountain environment as indicator of global change. In: Visconti G, Beniston M, Iannorelli ED, Barba D (eds) Global change and protected areas. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 331–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Grabherr G, Gottfried M, Pauli H (2010a) Climate change impacts in alpine environments. Geogr Compass 4:1133–1153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Grabherr G, Pauli H, Gottfried M (2010b) A worldwide observation of effects of climate change on mountain ecosystems. In: Borsdorf A, Grabherr G, Heinrich K, Scott B, Stötter J (eds) Challenges for mountain regions – tackling complexity. Böhlau, Wien, pp 49–57Google Scholar
  73. Guhathakurta P, Rajeevan M (2008) Trends in the rainfall pattern over India. Int J Climatol 28:1453–1469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Haeberli W (2013) Mountain permafrost – research frontiers and a special long-term challenge. Cold Reg Sci Technol 96:71–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Harsch MA, Hulme PE, McGlone MS, Duncan RP (2009) Are treelines advancing? A global meta-analysis of treeline response to climate warming. Ecol Lett 12:1040–1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hasson S, Böhner J, Lucarini V (2015) Prevailing climatic trends and runoff response from Hindukush–Karakoram–Himalaya, upper Indus basin. Earth Syst Dyn Discuss 6:579–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hewitt K (2005) The Karakoram anomaly? Glacier expansion and the ‘elevation effect’, Karakoram Himalaya. Mt Res Dev 25:332–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hewitt K (2011) Glacier change, concentration, and elevation effects in the Karakoram Himalaya, Upper Indus Basin. Mt Res Dev 31:188–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hewitt K (2014) Glaciers of the Karakoram Himalaya: glacial environments, processes, hazards and resources. Springer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hijioka Y, Lin E, Pereira JJ, Corlett RT, Cui X, Insarov GE, Lasco RD, Lindgren E, Surjan A (2014) Asia. In: IPCC, Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part B: Regional aspects. contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1327–1370Google Scholar
  81. Holtmeier FK (2009) Mountain timberlines. Ecology, patchiness, and dynamics. Springer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Huber UM, Bugmann HKM, Reasoner MA (eds) (2005) Global change and mountain regions. An overview of current knowledge. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  83. Immerzeel W (2008) Historical trends and future predictions of climate variability in the Brahmaputra basin. Int J Climatol 28:243–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Immerzeel WW, Van Beek LP, Bierkens MF (2010) Climate change will affect the Asian water towers. Science 328:1382–1385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Immerzeel WW, Pellicciotti F, Bierkens MFP (2013) Rising river flows throughout the twenty-first century in two Himalayan glacierized watersheds. Nat Geosci 6:742–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of the working group I to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  87. IPCC (2014) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: Global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of the working group II to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  88. Iturrizaga L (2011) Trends in 20th century and recent glacier fluctuations in the Karakoram mountains. Z Geomorphol Suppl Issues 55:205–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ives JD, Messerli B, Spiess E (1997) Mountains of the world – a global priority. In: Messerli B, Ives JD (eds) Mountains of the world – a global priority. Parthenon, New York, pp 1–15Google Scholar
  90. Jacob T, Wahr J, Pfeffer WT, Swenson S (2012) Recent contributions of glaciers and ice caps to sea level rise. Nature 482:514–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Jain SK, Kumar V, Saharia M (2013) Analysis of rainfall and temperature trends in northeast India. Int J Climatol 33:968–978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Jhajharia D, Singh VP (2011) Trends in temperature, diurnal temperature range and sunshine duration in Northeast India. Int J Climatol 31:1353–1367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Jiménez Cisneros BE, Oki T, Arnell NW, Benito G, Cogley JG, Döll P, Jiang T, Mwakalila SS (2014) Freshwater resources. In: IPCC, climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Part A: Global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 229–269
  94. Jump AS, Huang TJ, Chou CH (2012) Rapid altitudinal migration of mountain plants in Taiwan and its implications for high altitude biodiversity. Ecography 35:204–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kääb A, Berthier E, Nuth C, Gardelle J, Arnaud Y (2012) Contrasting patterns of early twenty-first-century glacier mass change in the Himalayas. Nature 488:495–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kääb A, Treichler D, Nuth C, Berthier E (2015) Brief communication: contending estimates of 2003–2008 glacier mass balance over the Pamir–Karakoram–Himalaya. Cryosphere 9:557–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Kamp U, Byrne M, Bolch T (2011) Glacier fluctuations between 1975 and 2008 in the Greater Himalaya Range of Zanskar, southern Ladakh. J Mt Sci 8:374–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kapnick SB, Delworth TL, Ashfaq M, Malyshev S, Milly PCD (2014) Snowfall less sensitive to warming in Karakoram than in Himalayas due to a unique seasonal cycle. Nat Geosci 7:834–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kattel DB, Yao T (2013) Recent temperature trends at mountain stations on the southern slope of the central Himalayas. J Earth Syst Sci 122:215–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Khattak MS, Babel MS, Sharif M (2011) Hydro-meteorological trends in the upper Indus River basin in Pakistan. Clim Res 46:103–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kohler T, Giger M, Hurni H, Ott C, Wiesmann U, Wymann von Dach S, Maselli D (2010) Mountains and climate change: a global concern. Mt Res Dev 30:53–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Körner C (2003) Alpine plant life. Functional plant ecology of high mountain ecosystems, 2nd edn. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  103. Körner C (2012) Alpine treelines. Functional ecology of the high elevation tree limits. Springer, BaselGoogle Scholar
  104. Körner C, Ohsawa M, Spehn E, Berge E, Bugmann H, Groombridge B, Hamilton L, Hofer T, Ives J, Jodha N, Messerli B, Pratt J, Price M, Reasoner M, Rodgers A, ThonellJ YM (2005) Mountain systems. In: Hassan R, Scholes R, Ash N (eds) Ecosystems and human well-being: current state and trends, vol 1. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 681–716Google Scholar
  105. Krishnamurthy V, Ajayamohan RS (2010) Composite structure of monsoon low pressure systems and its relation to Indian rainfall. J Climate 23:4285–4305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Kulkarni A (2012) Weakening of Indian summer monsoon rainfall in warming environment. Theor Appl Climatol 109:447–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Kulkarni AV, Karyakarte Y (2014) Observed changes in Himalayan glaciers. Curr Sci 106:237–244Google Scholar
  108. Kulkarni AV, Bahuguna IM, Rathore BP, Singh SK, Randhawa SS, Sood RK, Dhar S (2007) Glacial retreat in Himalaya using Indian remote sensing satellite data. Curr Sci 92:69–74Google Scholar
  109. Lacombe G, McCartney M (2014) Uncovering consistencies in Indian rainfall trends observed over the last half century. Clim Change 123:287–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Lal M (2003) Global climate change: India’s monsoon and its variability. J Environ Stud Policy 6:1–34Google Scholar
  111. Le Roux PC, Mc Geoch MA (2008) Rapid range expansion and community reorganization in response to warming. Global Chang Biol 14:2950–2962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Lenoir J, Svenning JC (2015) Climate-related range shifts–a global multidimensional synthesis and new research directions. Ecography 38:15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Lenoir J, Gégout JC, Marquet PA, de Ruffray P, Brisse H (2008) A significant upward shift in plant species optimum elevation during the 20th century. Science 320:1768–1771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Li Z, He Y, Wang C, Wang X, Xin H, Zhang W, Cao W (2011) Spatial and temporal trends of temperature and precipitation during 1960–2008 at the Hengduan Mountains, China. Quat Int 236:127–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Li X, Tian H, Wang Y, Li R, Song Z, Zhang F, Xu M, Li D (2013) Vulnerability of 208 endemic or endangered species in China to the effects of climate change. Reg Environ Chang 13:843–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Liu X, Chen B (2000) Climatic warming in the Tibetan Plateau during recent decades. Int J Climatol 20:1729–1742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Liu X, Yin ZY, Shao X, Qin N (2006) Temporal trends and variability of daily maximum and minimum, extreme temperature events, and growing season length over the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau during 1961–2003. J Geophys Res Atmos 111:D19109. doi: 10.1029/2005JD006915 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Liu X, Cheng Z, Yan L, Yin ZY (2009) Elevation dependency of recent and future minimum surface air temperature trends in the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings. Global Planet Change 68:164–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Mal S, Singh RB (2013) Differential recession of glaciers in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Garhwal Himalaya, India. In: Cold and mountain region hydrological systems under climate change: towards improved projections. IAHS Publ 360: 71–76. IAHS Press, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  120. Mal S, Singh RB, Schickhoff U (2016) Estimating recent glacier changes in Central Himalaya, India, using remote sensing data. In: Singh RB, Schickhoff U, Mal S (eds) Climate change, glacier response, and vegetation dynamics in the Himalaya. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  121. Marzeion B, Jarosch AH, Hofer M (2012) Past and future sea-level change from the surface mass balance of glaciers. Cryosphere 6:1295–1322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Mayer C, Lambrecht A (2015) Die Gletscher der Hindukusch-Himalaya Region. In: Lozán JL, Grassl H, Kasang D, Notz D, Escher-Vetter H (eds) Warnsignal Klima. Das Eis der Erde. Wissenschaftliche Auswertungen, Hamburg, pp 130–137Google Scholar
  123. Mehta M, Dobhal DP, Bisht MPS (2011) Change of Tipra glacier in the Garhwal Himalaya, India, between 1962 and 2008. Progr Phys Geogr 35:721–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Mernild SH, Lipscomb WH, Bahr DB, Radić V, Zemp M (2013) Global glacier changes: a revised assessment of committed mass losses and sampling uncertainties. Cryosphere 7:1565–1577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Messerli B (2012) Global change and the world’s mountains: where are we coming from, and where are we going to? Mt Res Dev 32(S1):S55–S63Google Scholar
  126. Miehe G (2015) Glacial foreland successions. In: Miehe G, Pendry CA, Chaudhary R (eds) Nepal: an introduction to the natural history, ecology and human environment of the Himalayas. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, pp 80–90Google Scholar
  127. Mishra A (2014) Changing climate of Uttarakhand, India. J Geol Geosci 3:163. doi: 10.4172/2329-6755.1000163 Google Scholar
  128. Mong CE, Vetaas OR (2006) Establishment of Pinus wallichiana on a Himalayan glacier foreland: stochastic distribution or safe sites? Arct Antarct Alp Res 38:584–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Nagy L, Böhner J (2015) Climate change. In: Miehe G, Pendry CA, Chaudhary R (eds) Nepal: an introduction to the natural history, ecology and human environment of the Himalayas. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, pp 74–80Google Scholar
  130. Naidu CV, Durgalakshmi K, Muni Krishna K, Ramalingeswara Rao S, Satyanarayana GC, Lakshminarayana P, Malleswara Rao L (2009) Is summer monsoon rainfall decreasing over India in the global warming era? J Geophys Res 114:D24108. doi: 10.1029/2008JD011288 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Neckel N, Kropáček J, Bolch T, Hochschild V (2014) Glacier mass changes on the Tibetan Plateau 2003–2009 derived from ICESat laser altimetry measurements. Environ Res Lett 9, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/9/1/014009
  132. Nie Y, Zhang Y, Liu L, Zhang J (2010) Glacial change in the vicinity of Mt. Qomolangma (Everest), Central High Himalayas since 1976. J Geogr Sci 20:667–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Nogués-Bravo D, Araujo MB, Errea MP, Martinez-Rica JP (2007) Exposure of global mountain systems to climate warming during the 21st century. Global Environ Change 17:420–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Nuimura T, Fujita K, Yamaguchi S, Sharma RR (2012) Elevation changes of glaciers revealed by multitemporal digital elevation models calibrated by GPS survey in the Khumbu region, Nepal Himalaya, 1992–2008. J Glaciol 58:648–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Palazzi E, Hardenberg J, Provenzale A (2013) Precipitation in the Hindu-Kush Karakoram Himalaya: observations and future scenarios. J Geophys Res Atmos 118:85–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Palazzi E, von Hardenberg J, Terzago S, Provenzale A (2015) Precipitation in the Karakoram-Himalaya: a CMIP5 view. Clim Dyn 45:21–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Panday PK, Ghimire B (2012) Time-series analysis of NDVI from AVHRR data over the Hindu Kush–Himalayan region for the period 1982–2006. Int J Remote Sens 33:6710–6721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Pandey AC, Ghosh S, Nathawat MS (2011) Evaluating patterns of temporal glacier changes in Greater Himalayan Range, Jammu & Kashmir, India. Geocarto Int 26:321–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Pandit MK, Kumar V (2013) Land use and conservation challenges in Himalaya: past, present and future. In: Sodhi NS, Gibson L, Raven PH (eds) Conservation biology: voices from the tropics. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, pp 153–163Google Scholar
  140. Pandit MK, Manish K, Koh LP (2014) Dancing on the roof of the world: ecological transformation of the Himalayan landscape. Biol Sci 64:980–992Google Scholar
  141. Parmesan C (2006) Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Ann Rev Ecol Evol Syst 37:637–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Pauli H, Gottfried M, Dirnböck T, Dullinger S, Grabherr G (2003) Assessing the long-term dynamics of endemic plants at summit habitats. In: Nagy L, Grabherr G, Körner C, Thompson DBA (eds) Alpine biodiversity in Europe. Springer, Berlin, pp 195–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Pauli H, Gottfried M, Dullinger S, Abdaladze O, Akhalkatsi M, Alonso JLB, Coldea G, Dick J, Erschbamer B, Calzado RF, Ghosn D, Holten JI, Kanka R, Kazakis G, Kollar J, Larsson P, Moiseev P, Moiseev D, Molau U, Mesa JM, Nagy L, Pelino G, Puscas M, Rossi G, Stanisci A, Syverhuset AO, Theurillat JP, Tomaselli M, Unterluggauer P, Villar L, Vittoz P, Grabherr G (2012) Recent plant diversity changes on Europe’s mountain summits. Science 336:353–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Pauli H, Gottfried M, Grabherr G (2014) Effects of climate change on the alpine and nival vegetation of the Alps. J Mt Ecol 7(Suppl):9–12Google Scholar
  145. Pepin N, Bradley RS, Diaz HF, Baraer M, Caceres EB, Forsythe N, Fowler H, Greenwood G, Hashmi MZ, Liu XD, Miller JR, Ning L, Ohmura A, Palazzi E, Rangwala I, Schöner W, Severskiy I, Shahgedanova M, Wang MB, Williamson SN, Yang DQ (2015) Elevation-dependent warming in mountain regions of the world. Nat Clim Change 5:424–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Pfeffer WT, Arendt AA, Bliss A, Bolch T, Cogley JG, Gardner AS, Hagen JO, Hock R, Kaser G, Kienholz C, Miles ES, Moholdt G, Mölg N, Paul F, Sharp MJ (2014) The Randolph glacier inventory: a globally complete inventory of glaciers. J Glaciol 60:537–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Practical Action Nepal Office (2009) Temporal and spatial variability of climate change over Nepal (1976–2005). Practical Action Nepal Office, KathmanduGoogle Scholar
  148. Price MF, Kohler T (2013) Sustainable mountain development. In: Price MF, Byers AC, Friend DA, Kohler T, Price LW (eds) Mountain geography: physical and human dimensions. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 333–365Google Scholar
  149. Qian Y, Flanner MG, Leung LR, Wang W (2011) Sensitivity studies on the impacts of Tibetan Plateau snowpack pollution on the Asian hydrological cycle and monsoon climate. Atmos Chem Phys 11:1929–1948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Qin J, Yang K, Liang S, Guo X (2009) The altitudinal dependence of recent rapid warming over the Tibetan Plateau. Clim Change 97:321–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Qin N, Chen X, Fu G, Zhai J, Xue X (2010) Precipitation and temperature trends for the Southwest China: 1960–2007. Hydrol Process 24:3733–3744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Racoviteanu A, Bolch T, Bhambri R, Bajracharya S, Mool P, Chaujar RK, Kargel J, Leonard G, Furfaro R, Kääb A, Rauenfelder R, Sossna I, Kamp U, Byrne M, Kulkarni AV, Baghuna IM, Berthier E, Arnaud Y, Bishop MP, Shroder JF (2014) Himalayan glaciers (India, Bhutan, Nepal): satellite observations of thinning and retreat. In: Kargel JS, Leonard GJ, Bishop MP, Kääb A, Raup BH (eds) Global land ice measurements from space. Springer, Berlin, pp 549–582Google Scholar
  153. Racoviteanu A, Arnaud Y, Williams M, Manley WF (2015) Spatial patterns in glacier area and elevation changes from 1962 to 2006 in the monsoon-influenced eastern Himalaya. Cryosphere 9:505–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Radić V, Bliss A, Beedlow AC, Hock R, Miles E, Cogley JG (2014) Regional and global projections of twenty-first century glacier mass changes in response to climate scenarios from global climate models. Clim Dyn 42:37–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Raina VK (2009) Himalayan glaciers: a state-of-art review of glacial studies, glacial retreat and climate change, MoEF discussion paper. Ministry of Environment and Forests, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  156. Rangwala I, Miller JR (2012) Climate change in mountains: a review of elevation-dependent warming and its possible causes. Clim Change 114:527–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Rankl M, Kienholz C, Braun M (2014) Glacier changes in the Karakoram region mapped by multimission satellite imagery. Cryosphere 8:977–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Rasul G, Mahmood A, Sadiq A, Khan SI (2012) Vulnerability of the Indus delta to climate change in Pakistan. Pak J Meteorol 8:89–106Google Scholar
  159. Raza M, Hussain D, Rasul G, Akbar M, Raza G (2015) Variations of surface temperature and precipitation in Gilgit-Baltistan (GB), Pakistan from 1955 to 2010. J Biodivers Environ Sci 6:67–73Google Scholar
  160. Reggiani P, Rientjes THM (2015) A reflection on the long-term water balance of the Upper Indus Basin. Hydrol Res 46:446–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Ren J, Jing Z, Pu J, Qin X (2006) Glacier variations and climate change in the central Himalaya over the past few decades. Ann Glaciol 43:218–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Rosenzweig C, Casassa G, Karoly DJ, Imeson A, Menzel A, Rawlins S, Root TL, Seguin B, Tryjanowski P (2007) Assessment of observed changes and responses in natural and managed systems. In: IPCC, climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 79–131Google Scholar
  163. Rupper S, Schaefer JM, Burgener LK, Koenig LS, Tsering K, Cook ER (2012) Sensitivity and response of Bhutanese glaciers to atmospheric warming. Geophys Res Lett 39:L19503. doi: 10.1029/2012GL053010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Salerno F, Buraschi E, Bruccoleri G, Tartari G, Smiraglia C (2008) Glacier surface-area changes in Sagarmatha National Park, Nepal, in the second half of the 20th century, by comparison of historical maps. J Glaciol 54:738–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Salick J, Ghimire SK, Fang Z, Dema S, Konchar KM (2014) Himalayan alpine vegetation, climate change and mitigation. J Ethnobiol 34:276–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Scherler D, Bookhagen B, Strecker MR (2011) Spatially variable response of Himalayan glaciers to climate change affected by debris cover. Nat Geosci 4:156–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Schickhoff U (2005) The upper timberline in the Himalayas, Hindu Kush and Karakorum: a review of geographical and ecological aspects. In: Broll G, Keplin B (eds) Mountain ecosystems. Studies in treeline ecology. Springer, Berlin, pp 275–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Schickhoff U (2011) Dynamics of mountain ecosystems. In: Millington A, Blumler M, Schickhoff U (eds) Handbook of biogeography. Sage Publication, London, pp 313–337Google Scholar
  169. Schickhoff U, Bobrowski M, Böhner J, Bürzle B, Chaudhary RP, Gerlitz L, Heyken H, Lange J, Müller M, Scholten T, Schwab N, Wedegärtner R (2015) Do Himalayan treelines respond to recent climate change? An evaluation of sensitivity indicators. Earth Syst Dyn 6:245–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Schickhoff U, Bobrowski M, Böhner J, Bürzle B, Chaudhary RP, Gerlitz L, Lange J, Müller M, Scholten T, Schwab N (2016) Climate change and treeline dynamics in the Himalaya. In: Singh RB, Schickhoff U, Mal S (eds) Climate change, glacier response, and vegetation dynamics in the Himalaya. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  171. Schmidt S, Nüsser M (2009) Fluctuations of Raikot Glacier during the past 70 years: a case study from the Nanga Parbat massif, northern Pakistan. J Glaciol 55:949–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Schmidt S, Nüsser M (2012) Changes of high altitude glaciers from 1969 to 2010 in the Trans-Himalayan Kang Yatze Massif, Ladakh, Northwest India. Arct Antarct Alp Res 44:107–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Schwab N, Schickhoff U, Müller M, Gerlitz L, Bürzle B, Böhner J, Chaudhary RP, Scholten T (2016) Treeline responsiveness to climate warming: insights from a krummholz treeline in Rolwaling Himal, Nepal. In: Singh RB, Schickhoff U, Mal S (eds) Climate change, glacier response, and vegetation dynamics in the Himalaya. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  174. Serquet G, Marty C, Dulex JP, Rebetez M (2011) Seasonal trends and temperature dependence of the snowfall/precipitation-day ratio in Switzerland. Geophys Res Lett 38:L07703. doi: 10.1029/2011GL046976 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Settele J, Scholes R, Betts R, Bunn S, Leadley P, Nepstad D, Overpeck JT, Taboada MA (2014) Terrestrial and inland water systems. In: IPCC, climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Part A: Global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 271–359Google Scholar
  176. Shangguan D, Liu S, Ding Y, Wu L, Deng W, Guo W, Wang Y, Xu J, Yao X, Guo Z, Zhu W (2014) Glacier changes in the Koshi River basin, central Himalaya, from 1976 to 2009, derived from remote-sensing imagery. Ann Glaciol 55:61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Shea JM, Immerzeel WW, Wagnon P, Vincent C, Bajracharya S (2015) Modelling glacier change in the Everest region, Nepal Himalaya. Cryosphere 9:1105–1128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Shekhar MS, Chand H, Kumar S, Srinivasan K, Ganju A (2010) Climate-change studies in the western Himalaya. Ann Glaciol 51:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Shrestha AB, Aryal R (2011) Climate change in Nepal and its impact on Himalayan glaciers. Reg Environ Chang 11(Suppl. 1):S65–S77Google Scholar
  180. Shrestha AB, Devkota LP (2010) Climate change in the eastern Himalayas: observed trends and model projections. ICIMOD, KathmanduGoogle Scholar
  181. Shrestha AB, Wake CP, Mayewski PA, Dibb JE (1999) Maximum temperature trends in the Himalayas and its vicinity: an analysis based on temperature records from Nepal for the period 1971–1994. J Climate 12:2775–2786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Shrestha AB, Wake CP, Dibb JE, Mayewski PA (2000) Precipitation fluctuations in the Nepal Himalaya and its vicinity and relationship with some large scale climatological parameters. Int J Climatol 20:317–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Shrestha UB, Gautam S, Bawa KS (2012) Widespread climate change in the Himalayas and associated changes in local ecosystems. PLoS One 7:e36741. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036741 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Singh RB, Kumar P (2014) Climate change and glacial lake outburst floods in Himachal Himalaya, India. In: Singh M, Singh RB, Hassan MI (eds) Climate change and biodiversity. Springer, Tokyo, pp 3–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Singh RB, Mal S (2014) Trends and variability of monsoon and other rainfall seasons in Western Himalaya, India. Atmos Sci Lett 15:218–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Singh RB, Kumar S, Kumar A (2016) Climate change in Pindari region, Central Himalaya, India. In: Singh RB, Schickhoff U, Mal S (eds) Climate change, glacier response, and vegetation dynamics in the Himalaya. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  187. Singh SP, Bassignana-Khadka I, Karky BS, Sharma E (2011) Climate change in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas: the state of current knowledge. ICIMOD, KathmanduGoogle Scholar
  188. Sontakke NA, Singh N, Singh HN (2008) Instrumental period rainfall series of the Indian region (AD 1813–2005): revised reconstruction, update and analysis. Holocene 18:1055–1066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Steinbauer MJ, Zeidler J (2008) Climate change in the Northern Areas Pakistan. Impacts on glaciers, ecology and livelihoods. WWF Pakistan, GilgitGoogle Scholar
  190. Stewart IT (2009) Changes in snowpack and snowmelt runoff for key mountain regions. Hydrol Process 23:78–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Tahir AA, Chevallier P, Arnaud Y, Neppel L, Ahmad B (2011) Modeling snowmelt-runoff under climate scenarios in the Hunza River Basin, Karakoram Range, northern Pakistan. J Hydrol 409:104–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Telwala Y, Brook BW, Manish K, Pandit MK (2013) Climate-induced elevational range shifts and increase in plant species richness in a Himalayan biodiversity epicentre. PLoS One 8:e57103. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057103 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Terzago S, von Hardenberg J, Palazzi E, Provenzale A (2014) Snowpack changes in the Hindu Kush–Karakoram–Himalaya from CMIP5 global climate models. J Hydrometeorol 15:2293–2313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Thakuri S, Salerno F, Smiraglia C, Bolch T, D’Agata C, Viviano G, Tartari G (2014) Tracing glacier changes since the 1960s on the south slope of Mt. Everest (central southern Himalaya) using optical satellite imagery. Cryosphere 8:1297–1315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Thuiller W (2004) Patterns and uncertainties of species’ range shifts under climate change. Global Chang Biol 10:2020–2027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Tse-ring K, Sharma E, Chettri N, Shrestha A (2010) Climate change impact and vulnerability in the eastern Himalayas: synthesis report. ICIMOD, KathmanduGoogle Scholar
  197. Vaughan DG, Comiso JC, Allison I, Carrasco J, Kaser G, Kwok R, Mote P, Murray T, Paul F, Ren J, Rignot E, Solomina O, Steffen K, Zhang T (2013) Observations: cryosphere. In: IPCC, climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 317–382Google Scholar
  198. Vetaas OR (2007) Global changes and its effect on glaciers and cultural landscapes: historical and future considerations. In: Chaudhary RP, Aase TH, Vetaas OR, Subedi BP (eds) Local effects of global changes in the Himalayas: manang, Nepal. Tribhuvan University Nepal-University Bergen, Norway, pp 23–39Google Scholar
  199. Vincent C, Ramanathan A, Wagnon P, Dobhal DP, Linda A, Berthier E, Sharma P, Arnaud Y, Azam MF, Jose PG, Gardelle J (2013) Balanced conditions or slight mass gain of glaciers in the Lahaul and Spiti region (northern India, Himalaya) during the nineties preceded recent mass loss. Cryosphere 7:569–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Viviroli D, Dürr HH, Messerli B, Meybeck M, Weingartner R (2007) Mountains of the world, water towers for humanity: typology, mapping, and global significance. Water Resour Res 43:W07447. doi: 10.1029/2006WR005653 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Walther GR, Post E, Convey P, Menzel A, Parmesan C, Beebee TJC, Fromentin JM, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Bairlein F (2002) Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature 416:389–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Walther GR, Beißner S, Pott R (2005) Climate change and high mountain vegetation shifts. In: Broll G, Keplin B (eds) Mountain ecosystems. Studies in treeline ecology. Springer, Berlin, pp 77–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Wang B, Bao Q, Hoskins B, Wu G, Liu Y (2008) Tibetan Plateau warming and precipitation changes in East Asia. Geophys Res Lett 35:L14702. doi: 10.1029/2008GL034330 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Wang SY, Yoon JH, Gillies RR, Cho C (2013) What caused the winter drought in western Nepal during recent years? J Climate 26:8241–8256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Wani RA (2014) Historical temporal trends of climatic variables over Kashmir Valley and discharge response to climate variability in upper Jhelum Catchment. In: Singh M, Singh RB, Hassan MI (eds) Climate change and biodiversity. Springer, Tokyo, pp 103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. WGMS (World Glacier Monitoring Service) (2008) Global glacier changes: facts and figures. UNEP/WGMS, ZurichGoogle Scholar
  207. Williams RJ, Ferrigno J (2010) Glaciers of Asia. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386–F, US Govt Print Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  208. Wiltshire AJ (2014) Climate change implications for the glaciers of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalayan region. Cryosphere 8:941–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Wu S, Yin Y, Zheng D, Yang Q (2007) Climatic trends over the Tibetan Plateau during 1971–2000. J Geogr Sci 17:141–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Xu ZX, Gong TL, Li JY (2008) Decadal trend of climate in the Tibetan Plateau – regional temperature and precipitation. Hydrol Process 22:3056–3065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Xu J, Grumbine RE, Shrestha A, Eriksson M, Yang X, Wang Y, Wilkes A (2009) The melting Himalayas: cascading effects of climate change on water, biodiversity, and livelihoods. Conserv Biol 23:520–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Yang X, Zhang Y, Zhang W, Yan Y, Wang Z, Ding M, Chu D (2006) Climate change in Mt. Qomolangma region since 1971. J Geogr Sci 16:326–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Yang X, Zhang T, Qin D, Kang S, Qin X (2011) Characteristics and changes in air temperature and glacier’s response on the north slope of Mt. Qomolangma (Mt. Everest). Arct Antarct Alp Res 43:147–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Yang J, Tan C, Zhang T (2013) Spatial and temporal variations in air temperature and precipitation in the Chinese Himalayas during the 1971–2007. Int J Climatol 33:2622–2632Google Scholar
  215. Yao T, Pu J, Lu A, Wang Y, Yu W (2007) Recent glacial retreat and its impact on hydrological processes on the Tibetan Plateau, China, and surrounding regions. Arct Antarct Alp Res 39:642–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Yao T, Thompson L, Yang W, Yu W, Gao Y, Guo X, Yang X, Duan K, Zhao H, Xu B, Pu J, Lu A, Xiang Y, Kattel DB, Joswiak D (2012) Different glacier status with atmospheric circulations in Tibetan Plateau and surroundings. Nat Clim Chang 2:663–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Yasunari TJ, Bonasoni P, Laj P, Fujita K, Vuillermoz E, Marinoni A, Cristofanelli P, Duchi R, Tartari G, Lau KM (2010) Estimated impact of black carbon deposition during pre-monsoon season from Nepal Climate Observatory – Pyramid data and snow albedo changes over Himalayan glaciers. Atmos Chem Phys 10:6603–6615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. You Q, Kang S, Wu Y, Yan Y (2007) Climate change over the Yarlung Zangbo river basin during 1961–2005. J Geogr Sci 17:409–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Yunling H, Yiping Z (2005) Climate change from 1960 to 2000 in the Lancang River Valley, China. Mt Res Dev 25:341–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Zhang MG, Zhou ZK, Chen WY, Cannon CH, Raes N, Slik JW (2014) Major declines of woody plant species ranges under climate change in Yunnan, China. Divers Distrib 20:405–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CEN Center for Earth System Research and Sustainability, Institute of GeographyUniversity of HamburgHamburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of Geography, Delhi School of EconomicsUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Geography, Shaheed Bhagat Singh CollegeUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations