Advertisement

Group Size

  • Ashley Ward
  • Mike Webster
Chapter

Abstract

The naturalist John James Audubon famously gave an account of a migration of the now-vanished passenger pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius). After attempting to count the passing flocks that together made up the vast procession, he abandoned this task as impractical and continued on his journey, noting that at the end of a full day’s travelling, the birds still continued to pass by and did so still for several more days thereafter (Audubon 1870). Breeding colonies consisting of hundreds of millions of pairs of these birds were reported during the 1800s, and it is estimated that the largest migrations contained billions of individuals (Schorger 1955). During the latter decades of the nineteenth century, as Americans in the eastern states bore witness to these huge flocks, those living further west were contending with periodic outbreaks of another multitudinous animal, the Rocky Mountain locust (Melanoplus spretus). One infamous swarm of 1875 was estimated to have covered half a million square kilometres and to have contained several trillion locusts (Piper 2007). Like the passenger pigeon, the Rocky Mountain locust was to be extinct shortly after the turn of the century. Today, juveniles of the extant – though declining (Atkinson et al. 2004) – Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) in the Scotia Sea of the Southern Ocean form super swarms trillions strong that can be 30 m deep and extend over several km, sometimes containing hundreds of individuals per cubic metre. So large are these swarms that the majority of the total population can be contained within just a few such aggregations (Tarling et al. 2009).

Keywords

Group Size Group Mate Lifetime Reproductive Success Dominant Individual Dominant Female 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abbott KR, Dukas R (2009) Honeybees consider flower danger in their waggle dance. Anim Behav 78(3):633–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arroyo BE, De Cornulier T, Bretagnolle V (2002) Parental investment and parent–offspring conflicts during the postfledging period in Montagu’s harriers. Anim Behav 63(2):235–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atkinson A, Siegel V, Pakhomov E, Rothery P (2004) Long-term decline in krill stock and increase in salps within the Southern Ocean. Nature 432(7013):100–103CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Audubon JJ (1870) The birds of America, from drawings made in the United States and their territories, vol 5. GR Lockwood, NeyworkGoogle Scholar
  5. Baird RW, Dill LM (1996) Ecological and social determinants of group size in transient killer whales. Behav Ecol 7(4):408–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beauchamp G (2008) What is the magnitude of the group-size effect on vigilance? Behav Ecol 19(6):1361–1368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beauchamp G, Fernández-Juricic E (2005) The group-size paradox: effects of learning and patch departure rules. Behav Ecol 16(2):352–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beauchamp G, Livoreil B (1997) The effect of group size on vigilance and feeding rate in spice finches (Lonchura punctulata). Can J Zool 75(9):1526–1531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonabeau E, Dagorn L (1995) Possible universality in the size distribution of fish schools. Phy Rev E 51(6):R5220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bonabeau E, Dagorn L, Freon P (1999) Scaling in animal group-size distributions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:4472–4477CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Borkowski J, Furubayashi K (1998) Seasonal and diel variation in group size among Japanese sika deer in different habitats. J Zool 245(1):29–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brierley AS, Cox MJ (2010) Shapes of krill swarms and fish schools emerge as aggregation members avoid predators and access oxygen. Curr Biol 20(19):1758–1762. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.08.041 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown C, Garwood MP, Williamson JE (2012) It pays to cheat: tactical deception in a cephalopod social signalling system. Biol Lett 8(5):729–32CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Buston P (2003) Forcible eviction and prevention of recruitment in the clown anemonefish. Behav Ecolo 14(4):576–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cant MA, Hodge SJ, Bell MB, Gilchrist JS, Nichols HJ (2010) Reproductive control via eviction (but not the threat of eviction) in banded mongooses. Proc Roy Soc B Bio Sci 277(1691):2219–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Caraco T, Wolf LL (1975) Ecological determinants of group sizes of foraging lions. Am Nat 109:343–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carere C, Montanino S, Moreschini F, Zoratto F, Chiarotti F, Santucci D, Alleva E (2009) Aerial flocking patterns of wintering starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, under different predation risk. Anim Behav 77(1):101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chapman CA, Lefebvre L (1990) Manipulating foraging group size: spider monkey food calls at fruiting trees. Anim Behav 39(5):891–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Coolen I, Giraldeau LA, Lavoie M (2001) Head position as an indicator of producer and scrounger tactics in a ground-feeding bird. Anim Behav 61(5):895–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Croft DP, Arrowsmith BJ, Bielby J, Skinner K, White E, Couzin ID, Magurran IR, Krause J (2003) Mechanisms underlying shoal composition in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Oikos 100(3):429–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Croft DP, James R, Ward AJW, Botham MS, Mawdsley D, Krause J (2005) Assortative interactions and social networks in fish. Oecologia 143:211–219CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Croxall JP, Silk JR, Phillips RA, Afanasyev V, Briggs DR (2005) Global circumnavigations: tracking year-round ranges of nonbreeding albatrosses. Science 307(5707):249–250CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. D’Ettorre P, Heinze J (2001) Sociobiology of slave-making ants. Acta Etholo 3(2):67–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Davies NB, Krebs JR, West SA (2012) An introduction to behavioural ecology. WileyGoogle Scholar
  25. Dittus WP (1988) Group fission among wild toque macaques as a consequence of female resource competition and environmental stress. Anim Behav 36(6):1626–1645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dobler R, Kölliker M (2010) Kin-selected siblicide and cannibalism in the European earwig. Behav Ecolo 21(2):257–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Evans RM (1982) Foraging-flock recruitment at a black-billed gull colony: implications for the information center hypothesis. Auk 99:24–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fish FE (2010) Swimming strategies for energy economy. In: Domenici P, Kapoor BG (eds) Fish swimming: an etho-ecological perspective. Science Publishers, Enfield, pp 90–122Google Scholar
  29. Freeberg TM, Lucas JR (2002) Receivers respond differently to chick-a-dee calls varying in note composition in Carolina chickadees Poecile carolinensis. Anim Behav 63(5):837–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fretwell SD (1972) Populations in a seasonal environment (No. 5). Princeton University PressGoogle Scholar
  31. Furness RW, Birkhead TR (1984) Seabird colony distributions suggest competition for food supplies during the breeding season. Nature 311:655–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gerard JF, Loisel P (1995) Spontaneous emergence of a relationship between habitat openness and mean group size and its possible evolutionary consequences in large herbivores. J Theor Biol 176(4):511–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gerard JF, Bideau E, Maublanc ML, Loisel P, Marchal C (2002) Herd size in large herbivores: encoded in the individual or emergent? Biol Bull 202(3):275–282CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Giraldeau LA, Caraco T (1993) Genetic relatedness and group size in an aggregation economy. Evol Ecol 7(4):429–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Giraldeau L-A, Caraco T (2000) Social foraging theory. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  36. Giraldeau LA, Gillis D (1985) Optimal group size can be stable: a reply to Sibly. Anim Behav 33(2):666–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Grand TC, Dill LM (1999) The effect of group size on the foraging behaviour of juvenile coho salmon: reduction of predation risk or increased competition? Anim Behav 58(2):443–451CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hamilton WD (1971) Geometry for the selfish herd. J Theor Biol 31(2):295–311CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hamilton IM (2000) Recruiters and joiners: using optimal skew theory to predict group size and the division of resources within groups of social foragers. Am Nat 155(5):684–695CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Heinsohn RG (1991) Kidnapping and reciprocity in cooperatively breeding white-winged choughs. Anim Behav 41(6):1097–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Herbert-Read JE, Krause S, Morrell LJ, Schaerf TM, Krause J, Ward AJW (2013) The role of individuality in collective group movement. Proc Royal Soc London B Biol Sci 280(1752):20122564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Higashi M, Yamamura N (1993) What determines animal group size? Insider-outsider conflict and its resolution. Am Natu 142:553–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hoare DJ, Krause J, Peuhkuri N, Godin JG (2000a) Body size and shoaling in fish. J Fish Biol 57(6):1351–1366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hoare DJ, Ruxton GD, Godin JGJ, Krause J (2000b) The social organization of free ranging fish shoals. Oikos 89(3):546–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hoare DJ, Couzin ID, Godin JGJ, Krause J (2004) Context-dependent group size choice in fish. Anim Behav 67:155–164. doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2003.04.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hofer H, East ML (2008) Siblicide in Serengeti spotted hyenas: a long-term study of maternal input and cub survival. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 62(3):341–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hölldobler B, Wilson EO (1990) The ants. Harvard University PressGoogle Scholar
  48. Ioannou CC, Morrell LJ, Ruxton GD, Krause J (2009) The effect of prey density on predators: conspicuousness and attack success are sensitive to spatial scale. Am Nat 173(4):499–506CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Ioannou CC, Guttal V, Couzin ID (2012) Predatory fish select for coordinated collective motion in virtual prey. Science 337(6099):1212–1215CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Jackson DE, Ratnieks FL (2006) Communication in ants. Curr Biol 16(15):R570–R574CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Judd TM, Sherman PW (1996) Naked mole-rats recruit colony mates to food sources. Anim Behav 52:957–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Keller L, Reeve HK (1994) Partitioning of reproduction in animal societies. Trends Ecol Evol 9(3):98–102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. King AJ, Williams LJ, Mettke-Hofmann C (2015) The effects of social conformity on Gouldian finch personality. Anim Behav 99:25–31. doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2014.10.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kokko H, Johnstone RA, Clutton-Brock TH (2001) The evolution of cooperative breeding through group augmentation. Proc Royal Soc B Biol Sci 268(1463):187–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Krause J (1993b) The relationship between foraging and shoal position in a mixed shoal of roach (Rutilus rutilus) and chub (Leuciscus cephalus) – a field-study. Oecologia 93(3):356–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Krause J (1994) Differential fitness returns in relation to spatial position in groups. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 69(2):187–206CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Krause J, Ruxton GD (2002) Living in groups. OUP, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  58. Krause J, Hartmann N, Pritchard VL (1999) The influence of nutritional state on shoal choice in zebrafish, Danio rerio. Anim Behav 57(4):771–775CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Laland KN, Williams K (1998) Social transmission of maladaptive information in the guppy. Behav Ecolo 9:493–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Landeau L, Terborgh J (1986) Oddity and the ‘confusion effect’ in predation. Anim Behav 34(5):1372–1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lee-Jenkins SS, Smith ML, Wisenden BD, Wong A, Godin JGJ (2015) Genetic evidence for mixed broods and extra-pair matings in a socially monogamous biparental cichlid fish. Behaviour. doi: 10.1163/1568539X-00003289 Google Scholar
  62. Mahurin EJ, Freeberg TM (2009) Chick-a-dee call variation in Carolina chickadees and recruiting flockmates to food. Behav Ecolo 20(1):111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Metcalfe NB, Thomson BC (1995) Fish recognize and prefer to shoal with poor competitors. Proc Roy Soc London Ser B Biol Sci 259(1355):207–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mock DW, Parker GA (1998) Siblicide, family conflict and the evolutionary limits of selfishness. Anim Behav 56(1):1–10CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Mock DW, Drummond H, Stinson CH (1990) Avian siblicide. Am Sci 78:438–449Google Scholar
  66. Morse DH (1978) Structure and foraging patterns of flocks of tits and associated species in an English woodland during the winter. Ibis 120(3):298–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Müller CA, Bell MB (2009) Kidnapping and infanticide between groups of banded mongooses. Mammalian Biol Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 74(4):315–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nicol CJ (1995) The social transmission of information and behaviour. Appl Anim Behav Sci 44(2):79–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Niwa HS (1998) School size statistics of fish. J Theor Biol 195(3):351–361CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Niwa HS (2003) Power-law versus exponential distributions of animal group sizes. J Theor Biol 224(4):451–457CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Orpwood JE, Magurran AE, Armstrong JD, Griffiths SW (2008) Minnows and the selfish herd: effects of predation risk on shoaling behaviour are dependent on habitat complexity. Anim Behav 76(1):143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Packer C, Scheel D, Pusey AE (1990) Why lions form groups: food is not enough. Am Nat 136:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Palestis BG, Burger J (1998) Evidence for social facilitation of preening in the common tern. Anim Behav 56(5):1107–1111CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Pike TW, Laland KN (2010) Conformist learning in nine-spined sticklebacks’ foraging decisions. Biol Lett 6(4):466–468. rsbl20091014CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Piper R (2007) Extraordinary animals: an encyclopaedia of curious and unusual animals. Greenwood Publishing GroupGoogle Scholar
  76. Piyapong C, Butlin RK, Faria JJ, Scruton KJ, Wang J, Krause J (2011) Kin assortment in juvenile shoals in wild guppy populations. Heredity 106(5):749–756CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Plath M, Richter S, Tiedemann R, Schlupp I (2008) Male fish deceive competitors about mating preferences. Curr Biol 18(15):1138–1141CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Plath M, Richter S, Schlupp I, Tiedemann R (2010) Misleading mollies: surface-but not cave-dwelling Poecilia mexicana males deceive competitors about mating preferences. Acta Ethol 13(1):49–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pugesek BH (1990) Parental effort in the California gull: tests of parent-offspring conflict theory. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 27(3):211–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Radford AN (2004) Vocal coordination of group movement by green woodhoopoes (Phoeniculus purpureus). Ethology 110(1):11–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Radford AN, Du Plessis MA (2003) Bill dimorphism and foraging niche partitioning in the green woodhoopoe. J Anim Ecol 72(2):258–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Radford AN, Ridley AR (2006) Recruitment calling: a novel form of extended parental care in an altricial species. Curr Biol 16(17):1700–1704CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Rieucau G, Giraldeau LA (2009) Persuasive companions can be wrong: the use of misleading social information in nutmeg mannikins. Behav Ecol 20:1217–1222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Riley JR, Greggers U, Smith AD, Reynolds DR, Menzel R (2005) The flight paths of honeybees recruited by the waggle dance. Nature 435(7039):205–207CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Schorger AW (1955) The passenger pigeon: its natural history and extinction (Univ ofGoogle Scholar
  86. Seeley TD, Mikheyev AS, Pagano GJ (2000) Dancing bees tune both duration and rate of waggle-run production in relation to nectar-source profitability. J Comp Physiol A 186(9):813–819CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Seeley TD (2009) The wisdom of the hive: the social physiology of honey bee colonies. Harvard University PressGoogle Scholar
  88. Sibly RM (1983) Optimal group size is unstable. Anim Behav 31(3):947–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Smith JM, Harper D (2003) Animal signals. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  90. Sinclair ARE (1977) The African buffalo: a study of resource limitation of populations. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  91. Tarling GA, Klevjer T, Fielding S, Watkins J, Atkinson A, Murphy E, Korb R, Whitehouse M, Leaper R (2009) Variability and predictability of Antarctic krill swarm structure. Deep Sea Res Part I: Oceanograph Res Pap 56(11):1994–2012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Trivers RL (1974) Parent-offspring conflict. Am Zool 14(1):249–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tsubaki Y (1981) Some beneficial effects of aggregation in young larvae of Pryeria sinica Moore (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae). Res Popul Ecol 23(1):156–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Vehrencamp SL (1978) The adaptive significance of communal nesting in groove-billed anis (Crotophaga sulcirostris). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 4(1):1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Vehrencamp SL (1983) Optimal degree of skew in cooperative societies. Am Zool 23(2):327–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. von Frisch KR (1967) The dance language and orientation of bees. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  97. Ward AJW (2012) Social facilitation of exploration in mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 66:223–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ward AJW, Hart PJB (2003) The effects of kin and familiarity on interactions between fish. Fish Fish 4(4):348–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Webster MM, Hart PJ (2006b) Subhabitat selection by foraging threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus): previous experience and social conformity. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 60(1):77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wisenden BD, Keenleyside MH (1992) Intraspecific brood adoption in convict cichlids: a mutual benefit. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 31(4):263–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashley Ward
    • 1
  • Mike Webster
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Life and Environmental SciencesThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.School of BiologyUniversity of St AndrewsSt AndrewsUK

Personalised recommendations