Other Benefits and Costs of Grouping

  • Ashley Ward
  • Mike Webster


The preceding chapter focused upon foraging and predator-prey interactions through the lens of group living. Arguably, these represent the key areas where animals obtain benefits – principally access to information and protection from predators – and pay costs, mainly relating to competition for resources, from grouping with others. This may be so, but there are many other advantages and disadvantages that also apply to social species. Some of the key ones are summarised in this chapter. We have arranged these into broad functional categories, summarised in Table 5.1.


Group Mate Communal Breeding Ninespine Stickleback Indirect Fitness Benefit Mate Choice Copying 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashley Ward
    • 1
  • Mike Webster
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Life and Environmental SciencesThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.School of BiologyUniversity of St AndrewsSt AndrewsUK

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