Social Foraging and Predator-Prey Interactions

  • Ashley Ward
  • Mike Webster


The social environment has a substantial effect upon the ability of animals to find and hold on to food and other vital resources. At the same time, grouping can play an important role in determining how likely individuals are to end up becoming food for others. Many animals are both predator and prey and must face the challenges of foraging and responding to the threat of predation simultaneously (Beauchamp 2013). The first part of this chapter considers matters from the perspective of the forager. When animals forage together, their success, both in terms of finding resources and actually getting to consume them, is likely to be affected by the presence and behaviour of their group mates. Here we use the term forager in a very broad sense. While a good number of the examples we cite consider predators – animals that actively search for and consume other living animals – most of the concepts we discuss are relevant to scavengers, herbivores, detritivores and drift feeders too. Indeed, most of the principles discussed in this chapter may also be applied to animals that are searching for mates, water, minerals, nesting materials, tools or any other contestable item or substance that they may require in order to function. In some cases, different lines of research have emerged to deal with different types of resource, each with their own terminology. For example, the ways in which foragers interact and shape one another’s behaviour have been widely studied within the framework of social foraging (Giraldeau and Caraco 2000), while courtship and competition for mates have been considered under the umbrella of communication networks (McGregor 2005). We suggest that many of the costs and benefits of foraging together that we discus in the following sections will apply widely to many or all of these different resources, although of course the finer details of how competition for these actually plays out will depend upon the behaviours being studied and the species concerned. In the second part of this chapter, we focus upon the antipredatory costs and benefits to prey animals of grouping. At the very end of the chapter, we consider mixed-species groups, the evolution of which appears to have been driven by a combination of social foraging benefits and the need to avoid predators.


Group Mate Prey Animal Antipredator Behaviour Prey Patch Individual Group Member 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Anderson DJ, Hodum PJ (1993) Predator behavior favors clumped nesting in an oceanic seabird. Ecology 78:2462–2464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrén H (1991) Predation: an overrated factor for over-dispersion of birds’ nests? Anim Behav 41(6):1063–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aparicio JM, Bonal R, Muñoz A (2007) Experimental test on public information use in the colonial lesser kestrel. Evol Ecol 21(6):783–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnard CJ, Sibly RM (1981) Producers and scroungers: a general model and its application to captive flocks of house sparrows. Anim Behav 29(2):543–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beauchamp G (2013) Social foragers adopt a riskier foraging mode in the centre of their groups. Biol Lett 9(6). doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2013.0528
  6. Biesmeijer JC, Slaa EJ (2004) Information flow and organization of stingless bee foraging. Apidologie 35(2):143–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boesch C (1994) Cooperative hunting in wild chimpanzees. Anim Behav 48(3):653–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boland CR (2003) An experimental test of predator detection rates using groups of free-living emus. Ethol 109(3):209–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brandl SJ, Bellwood DR (2015) Coordinated vigilance provides evidence for direct reciprocity in coral reef fishes. Sci Rep 5:14556. doi: 10.1038/srep14556 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brick O (1998) Fighting behaviour, vigilance and predation risk in the cichlid fish Nannacara anomala. Anim Behav 56(2):309–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Broom M, Ruxton GD (2003) Evolutionarily stable kleptoparasitism: consequences of different prey types. Behav Ecol 14(1):23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown CR (1986) Cliff swallow colonies as information centers. Science 234(4772):83–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown GE, Godin JGJ, Pedersen J (1999) Fin-flicking behaviour: a visual antipredator alarm signal in a characin fish, Hemigrammus erythrozonus. Anim Behav 58:469–475. doi: 10.1006/anbe.1999.1173 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bshary R, Hohner A, Ait-el-Djoudi K, Fricke H (2006) Interspecific communicative and coordinated hunting between groupers and giant moray eels in the Red Sea. PLoS Biol 4(12):e431. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040431 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Calabuig G, Ortego J, Aparicio JM, Cordero PJ (2008) Public information in selection of nesting colony by lesser kestrels: which cues are used and when are they obtained? Anim Behav 75(5):1611–1617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carbone C, Du Toit JT, Gordon IJ (1997) Feeding success in African wild dogs: does kleptoparasitism by spotted hyenas influence hunting group size? J Anim Ecol 66:318–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Caro T (2005) Antipredator defenses in birds and mammals. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  18. Coolen I, Giraldeau LA, Lavoie M (2001) Head position as an indicator of producer and scrounger tactics in a ground-feeding bird. Anim Behav 61(5):895–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Coolen I, Bergen YV, Day RL, Laland KN (2003) Species difference in adaptive use of public information in sticklebacks. Pro Royal Soc Lon B Biol Sci 270(1531):2413–2419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cooper SM (1991) Optimal hunting group size: the need for lions to defend their kills against loss to spotted hyaenas. Afr J Ecol 29(2):130–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Creel S, Creel NM (1995) Communal hunting and pack size in African wild dogs, Lycaon pictus. Anim Behav 50(5):1325–1339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Creel S, Schuette P, Christianson D (2014) Effects of predation risk on group size, vigilance, and foraging behavior in an African ungulate community. Behav Ecolo 25(4):773–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cresswell W (1997) Interference competition at low competitor densities in blackbirds Turdus merula. J Anim Ecol 66:461–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cresswell W (1998) Variation in the strength of interference competition with resource density in blackbirds Turdus merula. Oikos 81:152–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Croft DP, Darden SK, Ruxton GD (2009a) Predation risk as a driving force for phenotypic assortment: a cross-population comparison. Proc Roy Soc B 276(1663):1899–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cvikel N, Berg KE, Levin E, Hurme E, Borissov I, Boonman A, Amichai E, Yovel Y (2015) Bats aggregate to improve prey search but might be impaired when their density becomes too high. Curr Biol 25(2):206–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cvikel N, Berg KE, Levin E, Hurme E, Borissov I, Boonman A, Amichai E, Yovel Y (2015) Bats aggregate to improve prey search but might be impaired when their density becomes too high. Curr Biol 25(2):206–211Google Scholar
  28. Danchin É, Giraldeau LA, Valone TJ, Wagner RH (2004) Public information: from nosy neighbors to cultural evolution. Science 305(5683):487–491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Devito J, Chivers DP, Kiesecker JM, Marco A, Wildy EL, Blaustein AR (1998) The effects of snake predation on metamorphosis of western toads, Bufo boreas (Amphibia, Bufonidae). Etholo 104(3):185–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Di Bitetti MS, Janson CH (2001) Social foraging and the finder’s share in capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella. Anim Behav 62(1):47–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dolby AS, Grubb TC Jr (1998) Benefits to satellite members in mixed-species foraging groups: an experimental analysis. Anim Behav 56(2):501–509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Doligez B, Danchin E, Clobert J (2002) Public information and breeding habitat selection in a wild bird population. Science 297(5584):1168–1170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Duffy DC (1983) The foraging ecology of Peruvian seabirds. Auk 800–810Google Scholar
  34. Duijns S, Piersma T (2014) Interference competition in a sexually dimorphic shorebird: prey behaviour explains intraspecific competition. Anim Behav 92:195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Elliott JM (2002) Shadow competition in wild juvenile sea trout. J Fish Biol 61(5):1268–1281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Farine DR, Garroway CJ, Sheldon BC (2012) Social network analysis of mixed-species flocks: exploring the structure and evolution of interspecific social behaviour. Anim Behav 84(5):1271–1277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ferrari MC, Chivers DP (2010) The ghost of predation future: threat-sensitive and temporal assessment of risk by embryonic woodfrogs. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 64(4):549–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fitzgibbon CD (1990) Mixed-species grouping in Thomson’s and Grant’s gazelles: the antipredator benefits. Anim Behav 39(6):1116–1126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. FitzGibbon CD (1994) The costs and benefits of predator inspection behaviour in Thomson’s gazelles. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 34(2):139–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Foster SA (1985) Group foraging by a coral-reef fish – a mechanism for gaining access to defended resources. Anim Behav 33(AUG):782–792Google Scholar
  41. Fretwell SD (1972) Populations in a seasonal environment (No. 5). Princeton University PressGoogle Scholar
  42. Gagliardo A, Guilford T (1993) Why do warning-coloured prey live gregariously? Proce Royal Soc London Series B Biol Sci 251(1330):69–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Galef BG (1988) Imitation in animals: history, definition and interpretation of the data from the psychological laboratory. In: Galef BG, Zentall TR (eds) Social learning: psychological and biological perspectives. Erlbaum, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
  44. Galef BG (1996) Social enhancement of food preferences in Norway rats: a brief review. In: Heyes CM, Galef BG (eds) Social learning in animals: the roots of culture. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 49–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Galef BG (2009) Strategies for social learning: testing predictions from formal theory. Adv Study Behav 39:117–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Galef BG, Wigmore SW (1983) Transfer of information concerning distant foods: a laboratory investigation of the ‘information-centre’hypothesis. Anim Behav 31(3):748–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Giraldeau L-A, Caraco T (2000) Social foraging theory. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  48. Giraldeau LA, Lefebvre L (1986) Exchangeable producer and scrounger roles in a captive flock of feral pigeons: a case for the skill pool effect. Anim Behav 34(3):797–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Giraldeau LA, Valone TJ, Templeton JJ (2002) Potential disadvantages of using socially acquired information. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B Biol Sci 357(1427):1559–1566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Goles E, Schulz O, Markus M (2001) Prime number selection of cycles in a predator prey model. Complexit 6(4):33–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Goodale E, Ratnayake CP, Kotagama SW (2014) Vocal mimicry of alarm associated sounds by a drongo elicits flee and mobbing responses from other species that participate in mixed species bird flocks. Etholo 120(3):266–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Grand TC, Dill LM (1999) The effect of group size on the foraging behaviour of juvenile coho salmon: reduction of predation risk or increased competition? Anim Behav 58(2):443–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Griffin AS (2004) Social learning about predators: a review and prospectus. Anim Learn Behav 32(1):131–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Griffin AS (2008) Social learning in Indian mynahs, Acridotheres tristis: the role of distress calls. Anim Behav 75(1):79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Griffiths SW, Brockmark S, Hojesjo J, Johnsson JI (2004) Coping with divided attention: the advantage of familiarity. Proce Royal Soc London Series B Biol Sci 271(1540):695–699. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2003.2648 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hamilton WD (1971) Geometry for the selfish herd. J Theor Biol 31(2):295–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Handegard NO, Boswell KM, Ioannou CC, Leblanc SP, Tjostheim DB, Couzin ID (2012) The dynamics of coordinated group hunting and collective information transfer among schooling prey. Curr Biol 22(13):1213–1217. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2012.04.050 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Heinrich J, Marzluff J (1995) Why Ravens Share. Am Sci 83(4):342–349Google Scholar
  59. Herbert-Read JE, Krause S, Morrell LJ, Schaerf TM, Krause J, Ward AJW (2013) The role of individuality in collective group movement. Proc Royal Soc London B Biol Sci 280(1752):20122564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Herbert-Read JE, Buhl J, Hu F, Ward AJ, Sumpter DJ (2015) Initiation and spread of escape waves within animal groups. Royal Soc Open Sci 2(4):140355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hill SL, Burrows MT, Hughes RN (2003) The efficiency of adaptive search tactics for different prey distribution patterns: a simulation model based on the behaviour of juvenile plaice. J Fish Biol 63(s1):117–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hoare DJ, Krause J (2003) Social organisation, shoal structure and information transfer. Fish Fish 4(3):269–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hoare DJ, Krause J, Peuhkuri N, Godin JG (2000a) Body size and shoaling in fish. J Fish Biol 57(6):1351–1366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hoare DJ, Ruxton GD, Godin JGJ, Krause J (2000b) The social organization of free ranging fish shoals. Oikos 89(3):546–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hoppitt W, Laland KN (2008) Social processes influencing learning in animals: a review of the evidence. Adv Study Behav 38:105–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hoppitt W, Laland KN (2013) Social learning: an introduction to mechanisms, methods, and models. Princeton University Press, PrincetonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Houston DC (1974) Food searching in griffon vultures. Afr J Ecol 12(1):63–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hughes NF (1992) Ranking of feeding positions by drift-feeding Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) in dominance hierarchies. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 49(10):1994–1998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hutchings MR, Gordon IJ, Kyriazakis I, Jackson F (2001) Sheep avoidance of faeces-contaminated patches leads to a trade-off between intake rate of forage and parasitism in subsequent foraging decisions. Anim Behav 62(5):955–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ims RA (1990) On the adaptive value of reproductive synchrony as a predator-swamping strategy. Am Natu 136:485–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ioannou CC, Tosh CR, Neville L, Krause J (2008) The confusion effect—from neural networks to reduced predation risk. Behav Ecolo 19(1):126–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ioannou CC, Bartumeus F, Krause J, Ruxton GD (2011) Unified effects of aggregation reveal larger prey groups take longer to find. Proce Royal Soc B Biol Sci 278(1720):2985–2990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ioannou CC, Guttal V, Couzin ID (2012) Predatory fish select for coordinated collective motion in virtual prey. Science 337(6099):1212–1215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Jackson AL, Ruxton GD, Houston DC (2008) The effect of social facilitation on foraging success in vultures: a modelling study. Biol Lett 4(3):311–313PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Jakobsson S, Brick O, Kullberg C (1995) Escalated fighting behaviour incurs increased predation risk. Anim Behav 49(1):235–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jolles JW, King AJ, Manica A, Thornton A (2013) Heterogeneous structure in mixed-species corvid flocks in flight. Anim Behav 85(4):743–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Krakauer DC (1995) Groups confuse predators by exploiting perceptual bottlenecks: a connectionist model of the confusion effect. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 36(6):421–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Krakauer DC (1995) Groups confuse predators by exploiting perceptual bottlenecks: a connectionist model of the confusion effect. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 36(6):421–429Google Scholar
  79. Krause J, Godin JGJ (1996a) Influence of prey foraging posture on flight behavior and predation risk: predators take advantage of unwary prey. Behav Ecolo 7(3):264–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Krause J, Godin JGJ (1996b) Influence of parasitism on shoal choice in the banded killifish (Fundulus diaphanus, Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae). Ethology 102:40–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Krause J, Ruxton GD (2002) Living in groups. OUP, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  82. Krause J, Ward AJW, Jackson AL, Ruxton GD, James R, Currie S (2005) The influence of differential swimming speeds on composition of multi-species fish shoals. J Fish Biol 67(3):866–872. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2005.00769.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Krebs JR (1974) Colonial nesting and social feeding as strategies for exploiting food resources in the Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias). Behaviour 51(1):99–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Laidre ME (2013) Eavesdropping foragers use level of collective commotion as public information to target high quality patches. Oikos 122(10):1505–1511Google Scholar
  85. Laland KN (2004) Social learning strategies. Anim Learn Behav 32(1):4–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Laland KN, Williams K (1998) Social transmission of maladaptive information in the guppy. Behav Ecolo 9:493–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Laland KN, Williams K (1998) Social transmission of maladaptive information in the guppy. Behav Ecolo 9:493–499Google Scholar
  88. Landeau L, Terborgh J (1986) Oddity and the ‘confusion effect’ in predation. Anim Behav 34(5):1372–1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lazarus J (1979) Flock size and behaviour in captive red-billed weaverbirds (Quelea quelea): implications for social facilitation and the functions of flocking. Behaviour 71(1):127–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lindström L (1999) Experimental approaches to studying the initial evolution of conspicuous aposematic signalling. Evolu Ecolo 13(7–8):605–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lubin Y, Henschel JR, Baker MB (2001) Costs of aggregation: shadow competition in a sit-and-wait predator. Oikos 95(1):59–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lupfer-Johnson G, Ross J (2007) Dogs acquire food preferences from interacting with recently fed conspecifics. Behav Processes 74(1):104–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lupfer-Johnson G, Hanson KL, Edwards LE, Elder RL, Evans SL (2009) Social cues influence foraging in dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli). J Comp Psychol 123(2):226–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Magurran AE, Higham A (1988) Information transfer across fish shoals under predator threat. Etholo 78(2):153–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mappes J, Marples N, Endler JA (2005) The complex business of survival by aposematism. Trends Ecol Evol 20(11):598–603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mathis A, Chivers DP, Smith RJF (1995) Chemical alarm signals: predator deterrents or predator attractants? Am Nat 145:994–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. McCarthy ID, Carter CG, Houlihan DF (1992) The effect of feeding hierarchy on individual variability in daily feeding of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J Fish Biol 41(2):257–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. McGregor PK (2005) Animal communication networks. Cambridge University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Mineka S, Cook M (1988) Social learning and the acquisition of snake fear in monkeys. Social learning: psychological and biological perspectives. pp 51–73Google Scholar
  100. Mock DW, Lamey TC, Ploger BJ (1987) Proximate and ultimate roles of food amount in regulating egret sibling aggression. Ecology 68:1760–1772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Moreno J, Bustamante J, Viñuela J (1995) Nest maintenance and stone theft in the chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica). Polar Biol 15(8):533–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Morse DH (1970) Ecological aspects of some mixed-species foraging flocks of birds. Ecolo Monogra 40:119–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mottley K, Giraldeau LA (2000) Experimental evidence that group foragers can converge on predicted producer–scrounger equilibria. Anim Behav 60(3):341–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Neill S, Cullen JM (1974) Experiments on whether schooling by their prey affects the hunting behaviour of cephalopods and fish predators. J Zool 172(4):549–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Neuswanger J, Wipfli MS, Rosenberger AE, Hughes NF (2014) Mechanisms of drift-feeding behavior in juvenile Chinook salmon and the role of inedible debris in a clear-water Alaskan stream. Environ Biol Fishes 97(5):489–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Nisbet ICT (1975) Selective effects of predation in a tern colony. Condor 77:221–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Nocera JJ, Forbes GJ, Giraldeau LA (2006) Inadvertent social information in breeding site selection of natal dispersing birds. Proc Royal Soc London B Biol Sci 273(1584):349–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. O’Donoghue M, Boutin S (1995) Does reproductive synchrony affect juvenile survival rates of northern mammals? Oikos 74:115–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ohguchi O (1981) Prey density and selection against oddity by three-spined sticklebacks, Advances in ethology, supplements to journal of comparative ethology. Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin/HamburgGoogle Scholar
  110. Osorno JL, Drummond H (2003) Is obligate siblicidal aggression food sensitive? Behav Ecol Sociobiol 54(6):547–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Packer C, Ruttan L (1988) The evolution of cooperative hunting. Am Nat 132(2):159–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Parker GA, Sutherland WJ (1986) Ideal free distributions when individuals differ in competitive ability: phenotype-limited ideal free models. Anim Behav 34(4):1222–1242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Pitcher TJ, Parrish JK (1993) The functions of shoaling behavior. In: Pitcher TJ (ed) The behavior of teleost fishes. Chapman & Hall, London, pp 363–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Pitcher TJ, Magurran AE, Winfield IJ (1982) Fish in larger shoals find food faster. Behav Ecolo Soc 10:149–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Pitman RL, Ballance LT, Mesnick SI, Chivers SJ (2001) Killer whale predation on sperm whales: observations and implications. Mar Mamm Sci 17(3):494–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Rao D (2009) Experimental evidence for the amelioration of shadow competition in an orb web spider through the ‘Ricochet’ effect. Ethology 115(7):691–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Ratcliffe JM, ter Hofstede HM (2005) Roosts as information centres: social learning of food preferences in bats. Biol Lett 1(1):72–74PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Rendell L, Fogarty L, Hoppitt WJ, Morgan TJ, Webster MM, Laland KN (2011) Cognitive culture: theoretical and empirical insights into social learning strategies. Trends Cogn Sci 15(2):68–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Richner H, Heeb P (1995) Is the information center hypothesis a flop? Adv Study Behav 24:1–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Roberts G (1996) Why individual vigilance declines as group size increases. Anim Behav 51(5):1077–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Rutz C (2012) Predator fitness increases with selectivity for odd prey. Curr Biol 22(9):820–824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Ryer CH, Olla BL (1995) Influences of food distribution on fish foraging behaviour. Anim Behav 49(2):411–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Satischandra SHK, Kudavidanage EP, Kotagama SW, Goodale EBEN (2007) The benefits of joining mixed-species flocks for greater racket-tailed drongos Dicrurus paradiseus. Forktail 23:145Google Scholar
  124. Selman J, Goss-Custard JD (1988) Interference between foraging redshank Tringa totanus. Anim Behav 36(5):1542–1544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Siegfried WR, Underhill LG (1975) Flocking as an anti-predator strategy in doves. Anim Behav 23:504–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sinclair AR (1985) Does interspecific competition or predation shape the African ungulate community? J Anim Ecol 54:899–918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Slaa EJ, Wassenberg J, Biesmeijer JC (2003) The use of field–based social information in eusocial foragers: local enhancement among nestmates and heterospecifics in stingless bees. Ecol Entomol 28(3):369–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Sridhar H, Beauchamp G, Shanker K (2009) Why do birds participate in mixed-species foraging flocks? A large-scale synthesis. Anim Behav 78(2):337–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Stander PE (1992) Cooperative hunting in lions: the role of the individual. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 29(6):445–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Steele WK, Hockey PA (1995) Factors influencing rate and success of intraspecific kleptoparasitism among kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus). Auk 112:847–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Stensland EVA, Angerbjörn A, Berggren PER (2003) Mixed species groups in mammals. Mamm Rev 33(3–4):205–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Stillman RA, Goss-Custard JD, Alexander MJ (2000) Predator search pattern and the strength of interference through prey depression. Behav Ecol 11(6):597–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Sugden LG, Beyersbergen GW (1986) Effect of density and concealment on American crow predation of simulated duck nests. J Wildl Manag 50:9–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Sullivan KA (1984) Information exploitation by downy woodpeckers in mixed-species flocks. Behaviour 91(4):294–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Taylor RJ (1984) Predation. Chapman and Hall, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Theodorakis CW (1989) Size segregation and the effects of oddity on predation risk in minnow schools. Anim Behav 38(3):496–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Thiebault A, Mullers RH, Pistorius PA, Tremblay Y (2014) Local enhancement in a seabird: reaction distances and foraging consequence of predator aggregations. Behav Ecolo 25(6):1302–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Thorpe WH (1956) Learning and instinct in animals. Methuen, LondonGoogle Scholar
  139. Tinbergen N, Impekoven M, Franck D (1967) An experiment on spacing-out as a defence against predation. Behaviour 28(3):307–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Tosh CR, Jackson AL, Ruxton GD (2006) The confusion effect in predatory neural networks. Am Nat 167(2):E52–E65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Treherne JE, Foster WA (1981) Group transmission of predator avoidance-behavior in a marine insect – the Trafalgar Effect. Anim Behav 29:911–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Tucker JK, Paukstis GL, Janzen FJ (2008) Does predator swamping promote synchronous emergence of turtle hatchlings among nests? Behav Ecolo 19(1):35–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Turner GF, Pitcher TJ (1986) Attack abatement: a model for group protection by combined avoidance and dilution. Am Natu 128:228–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Valone TJ, Templeton JJ (2002) Public information for the assessment of quality: a widespread social phenomenon. Phil Trans Royal Soc B Biolo Sci 357(1427):1549–1557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Vickery WL, Giraldeau LA, Templeton JJ, Kramer DL, Chapman CA (1991) Producers, scroungers, and group foraging. Am Natu 137:847–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Visser IN, Smith TG, Bullock ID, Green GD, Carlsson OG, Imberti S (2008) Antarctic peninsula killer whales (Orcinus orca) hunt seals and a penguin on floating ice. Mar Mamm Sci 24(1):225–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Ward P (1965) Feeding ecology of the black-faced dioch Quelea quelea in Nigeria. Ibis 107(2):173–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Ward P, Zahavi A (1973) The importance of certain assemblages of birds as “information-centres” for food-finding. Ibis 115(4):517–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Ward AJW, Herbert-Read JE, Sumpter DJT, Krause J (2011) Fast and accurate decisions through collective vigilance in fish shoals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:2312–2315PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Weary DM, Kramer DL (1995) Response of eastern chipmunks to conspecific alarm calls. Anim Behav 49(1):81–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Webster MM, Hart PJB (2006a) Kleptoparasitic prey competition in shoaling fish: effects of familiarity and prey distribution. Behav Ecolo 17(6):959–964. doi: 10.1093/beheco/arl037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Webster MM, Laland KN (2012) Social information, conformity and the opportunity costs paid by foraging fish. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 66(5):797–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Weidinger K, Pavel V (2013) Predator–prey interactions between the South Polar skua Catharacta maccormicki and Antarctic tern Sterna vittata. J Avian Biol 44(1):089–095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Williams KS, Simon C (1995) The ecology, behavior, and evolution of periodical cicadas. Annu Rev Entomol 40(1):269–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Williams KS, Smith KG, Stephen FM (1993) Emergence of 13-yr periodical cicadas (Cicadidae: Magicicada): phenology, mortality, and predators satiation. Ecology 74:1143–1152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Wolf NG (1985) Odd fish abandon mixed-species groups when threatened. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 17(1):47–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Wrona FJ, Dixon RJ (1991) Group size and predation risk: a field analysis of encounter and dilution effects. Am Nat 137:186–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Yoshimura J, Hayashi T, Tanaka Y, Tainaka KI, Simon C (2009) Selection for prime-number intervals in a numerical model of periodical cicada evolution. Evolution 63(1):288–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashley Ward
    • 1
  • Mike Webster
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Life and Environmental SciencesThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.School of BiologyUniversity of St AndrewsSt AndrewsUK

Personalised recommendations