• Ashley Ward
  • Mike Webster


Herds, flocks and shoals provide some of the most visually dramatic phenomena in the natural world. The sight of a mass of individuals turning and twisting in unison is fascinating and often hypnotic. The spectacle often provokes questions such as ‘how do the animals act as though they were perfectly choreographed?’ or ‘why do they form into these groups?’ Moreover, the tendency of animals to structure their interactions and to integrate into societies is a facet of their behaviour which inspires comparison with ourselves. Researching these and related questions has been a central goal of students of animal behaviour even before such luminaries as Niko Tinbergen and Konrad Lorenz codified and defined the scientific approach to animal behaviour.


Social Group Social Tendency Social Species Primate Society Social Attraction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashley Ward
    • 1
  • Mike Webster
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Life and Environmental SciencesThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.School of BiologyUniversity of St AndrewsSt AndrewsUK

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