Advertisement

Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: Definitions and Epidemiology

  • Eduardo BancalariEmail author
  • Nelson Claure
Chapter
Part of the Respiratory Medicine book series (RM)

Abstract

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most common complications of prematurity that results from abnormal lung development and impaired lung function. Multiple diagnostic criteria have been developed over the years to define BPD and determine its severity and long-term prognosis. This chapter provides an update on the changes in epidemiology of BPD, describes the rationale behind different definitions, and discusses their advantages and limitations in face of the changing epidemiology of BPD.

Keywords

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia Chronic lung disease Prematurity Lung injury Diagnostic criteria Definition 

References

  1. 1.
    Tepper RS, Morgan WJ, Cota K, Taussig LM. Expiratory flow limitation in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Pediatr. 1986;109:1040–6. PMID: 3783328.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gerhardt T, Hehre D, Feller R, Reifenberg L, Bancalari E. Serial determination of pulmonary function in infants with chronic lung disease. J Pediatr. 1987;110:448–56. PMID: 3819948.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shennan AT, Dunn MS, Ohlsson A, Lennox K, Hoskins EM. Abnormal pulmonary outcomes in premature infants: prediction from oxygen requirement in the neonatal period. Pediatrics. 1988;82:527–32. PMID: 3174313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Palta M, Sadek-Badawi M, Evans M, Weinstein MR, McGuinnes G. Functional assessment of a multicenter very low-birth-weight cohort at age 5 years: newborn lung project. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154:23–30. PMID: 10632246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baraldi E, Filippone M, Trevisanuto D, Zanardo V, Zacchello F. Pulmonary function until two years of life in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997;155:149–55. PMID: 9001304.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Korhonen P, Laitinen J, Hyodynmaa E, Tammela O. Respiratory outcome in school-aged, very-low-birth-weight children in the surfactant era. Acta Paediatr. 2004;93:316–21. PMID: 15124832.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Doyle LW, The Victorian Infant Collaborative Study Group. Respiratory function at age 8–9 years in extremely low birthweight/very preterm children born in Victoria in 1991–92. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2006;41:570–6. PMID: 22826206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Northway Jr WH, Rosen RC, Porter DY. Pulmonary disease following respirator therapy of hyaline membrane disease: bronchopulmonary dysplasia. N Engl J Med. 1967;276: 357–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stoll BJ, Hansen NI, Bell EF, Shankaran S, Laptook AR, Walsh MC, Hale EC, Newman NS, Schibler K, Carlo WA, Kennedy KA, Poindexter BB, Finer NN, Ehrenkranz RA, Duara S, Sánchez PJ, O’Shea TM, Goldberg RN, Van Meurs KP, Faix RG, Phelps DL, Frantz 3rd ID, Watterberg KL, Saha S, Das A, Higgins RD, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Neonatal outcomes of extremely preterm infants from the NICHD neonatal research network. Pediatrics. 2010;126:443–56.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stroustrup A, Trasande L. Epidemiological characteristics and resource use in neonates with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: 1993–2006. Pediatrics. 2010;126:291–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Margraf LR, Tomashefski Jr JF, Bruce MC, Dahms BB. Morphometric analysis of the lung in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991;143:391–400.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Husain AN, Siddiqui NH, Stocker JT. Pathology of arrested acinar development in postsurfactant bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Hum Pathol. 1998;29:710–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Thibeault DW, Mabry SM, Ekekezie II, Zhang X, Truog WE. Collagen scaffolding during development and its deformation with chronic lung disease. Pediatrics. 2003;111:766–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Coalson JJ, Winter V, deLemos RA. Decreased alveolarization in baboon survivors with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;152:640–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jobe AJ. The new BPD: an arrest of lung development. Pediatr Res. 1999;46:641–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Abman SH. Pulmonary hypertension in chronic lung disease of infancy. Pathogenesis, pathophysiology and treatment. In: Bland RD, Coalson JJ, editors. Chronic lung disease of infancy. New York: Dekker; 2000.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Watterberg KL, Demers LM, Scott SM, et al. Chorioamnionitis and early lung inflammation in infants in whom bronchopulmonary dysplasia develops. Pediatrics. 1996;97:210–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yoon BH, Romero R, Jun JK, et al. Amniotic fluid cytokines (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-8) and the risk for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997;177:825–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Groneck P, Gotze-Speer B, Oppermann M, et al. Association of pulmonary inflammation and increased microvascular permeability during the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a sequential analysis of inflammatory mediators in respiratory fluids of high-risk preterm neonates. Pediatrics. 1994;93:712–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pierce MR, Bancalari E. The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1995;19:371–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Groneck P, Speer CP. Inflammatory mediators and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Arch Dis Child. 1995;73:F1–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hannaford K, Todd DA, Jeffery H, John E, Blyth K, Gilbert GL. Role of ureaplasma urealyticum in lung disease of prematurity. Arch Dis Child. 1999;81:F162–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gonzalez A, Sosenko IRS, Chandar J, Hummler H, Claure N, Bancalari E. Influence of infection on patent ductus arteriosus and chronic lung disease in premature infants weighing 1000 grams or less. J Pediatr. 1996;128:470–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Marshall DD, Kotelchuck M, Young TE, et al. Risk factors for chronic lung disease in the surfactant era: a North Carolina population-based study of very low birth weight infants. Pediatrics. 1998;104:1345–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Watterberg KL, Scott SM. Evidence of early adrenal insufficiency in babies who develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatrics. 1995;95:120–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Watterberg KL, Gerdes JS, Gifford KL, et al. Prophylaxis against early adrenal insufficiency to prevent chronic lung disease in premature infants. Pediatrics. 1999;104:1258–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Watterberg KL, Scott SM, Backstrom C, et al. Links between early adrenal function and respiratory outcome in preterm infants: airway inflammation and patent ductus arteriosus. Pediatrics. 2000;150:320–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Parker RA, Pagano M, Allred EN. Improved survival accounts for most, but not all, of the increase in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatrics. 1992;90:663–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rojas MA, Gonzalez A, Bancalari E, et al. Changing trends in the epidemiology and pathogenesis of neonatal chronic lung disease. J Pediatr. 1995;126:605–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Charafeddine L, D’Angio CT, Phelps DL. Atypical chronic lung disease patterns in neonates. Pediatrics. 1999;103:759–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bancalari E, Claure N, Sosenko IRS. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: changes in pathogenesis, epidemiology and definition. Semin Neonatol. 2003;8:63–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bancalari E, Abdenour GE, Feller R, et al. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: clinical presentation. J Pediatr. 1979;95:819–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bancalari EH, Jobe AH. The respiratory course of extremely preterm infants: a dilemma for diagnosis and terminology. J Pediatr. 2012;161:585–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jobe AH, Bancalari E. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia. NICHD-NHLBI-ORD workshop. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 2001;163:1723–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ellsbury DL, Acarregui MJ, McGuinness GA, Klein JM. Variability in the use of supplemental oxygen for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Pediatr. 2002;140:247–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Walsh MC, Yao Q, Gettner P, et al. Impact of a physiologic definition of bronchopulmonary dysplasia rates. Pediatrics. 2004;114:1305–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Parekh SA, Field DJ, Johnson S, Juszczak E. Accounting for deaths in neonatal trials: is there a correct approach? Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2015;100:F193–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Doyle LW, Ehrenkranz RA, Halliday HL. Dexamethasone treatment in the first week of life for preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants: a systematic review. Neonatology. 2010;98:217–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Coste F, Ferkol T, Hamvas A, Cleveland C, Linneman L, Hoffman J, Kemp J. Ventilatory control and supplemental oxygen in premature infants with apparent chronic lung disease. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2015;100(3):F233–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ehrenkranz RA, Walsh MC, Vohr BR, et al. Validation of the national institutes of health consensus definition of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatrics. 2005;116:1353–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Davis PG, Thorpe K, Roberts R, et al. Evaluating “old” definitions for the “new” bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Pediatr. 2002;140:555–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Neonatology, Department of PediatricsUniversity of Miami School of MedicineMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations