Radiology of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: From Preterm Birth to Adulthood

  • Outi TammelaEmail author
  • Päivi Korhonen
Part of the Respiratory Medicine book series (RM)


The radiographic course of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) was first categorized into four sequential stages in the pre-surfactant era: from the granular pattern and a positive air bronchogram of acute respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) to enlarged lucent areas, alternating with strands of density and cardiomegaly. Two radiographic stages of BPD have been suggested in the surfactant era. Leaky lung syndrome (LLS) is associated with hazy-to-opaque findings, caused by capillary leakage due to hyperoxia. Cystic findings, referred to as “bubbly lung,” represent more severe lung injury, with heterogeneous opaque strands, cystic lucencies of varying size, and regional air trapping. High-resolution computed tomography detects lung abnormalities typical of BPD with a greater sensitivity than chest radiographs. Typical findings in BPD patients include linear and subpleural triangular opacities, reduced lung attenuation, bullae or blebs, emphysema, collapse, consolidation, bronchial wall thickening, bronchiectasis, and inverse bronchopulmonary artery diameter ratios. In the imaging of BPD, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to give functional information, and it is sensitive in detection of early changes in cases of emphysema.


Chest radiograph Cystic High-resolution computed tomography Leaky lung syndrome Magnetic resonance imaging Radiographic course Scoring 



We thank very much Päivi Savikurki, MD, pediatric radiologist, Tampere University Hospital, for valuable comments on the manuscript and help in choosing and editing the radiographs and Päivi Laarne, PhD, Medical Physicist, Tampere University Hospital, for help in the interpretation of radiation doses.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsTampere University HospitalTampereFinland

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