• Thomas Haslwanter
Part of the Statistics and Computing book series (SCO)


This chapter serves to define the statistical basics, like the concepts of populations and samples, and of probability distributions. It also includes a short overview of study design, a topic often seriously underestimated by many beginning researchers.


Probability Density Function Probability Mass Function Subject Comparison Discrete Probability Distribution Nuisance Factor 
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  1. Kaplan, R. M., & Irvin, V. L. (2015). Likelihood of null effects of large nhlbi clinical trials has increased over time. PLoS One, 10(8):e0132382. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0132382. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Rosenbaum, P. R., & Rubin, D. B. (1983). The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects. Biometrika, 70(1):41–55.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Haslwanter
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Applied Health and Social SciencesUniversity of Applied Sciences Upper AustriaLinzAustria

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