Advertisement

A Mechanistic View of the Capacity of Forests to Cope with Climate Change

  • Fernando ValladaresEmail author
Part of the Managing Forest Ecosystems book series (MAFE, volume 34)

Abstract

From an evolutionary point of view, trees have at least one intriguing feature: they tend to have high levels of genetic diversity, but at the same time, they are known for their low evolutionary rates. Thus, trees are characterized by a counterintuitive combination of rapid micro-evolutionary change and a low macro-evolutionary change (Petit and Hampe 2006). Trees experience highly heterogeneous environmental conditions and are exposed to extreme climatic events within their lifetime, which could contribute to the maintenance of their typically high genetic diversity (Gutschick and BassiriRad 2003; Petit and Hampe 2006). Trees are not only highly diverse but also highly fecund over their extended lifetime, allowing them to respond to high selection intensity and to adapt quickly to local conditions (Petit and Hampe 2006). Mean antiquity of tree species is one order of magnitude higher than for herbs, which implies low rates of extinction to compensate for their low rates of speciation. However, forest species are more vulnerable to environmental change than this combination of evolutionary features may suggest (Jump and Peñuelas 2005). Recent studies of Spanish populations of beech (Fagus sylvatica) are showing that the fragmentation of the forests that took place several centuries ago has led to a high genetic divergence of the populations and a reduced genetic diversity despite the fact that the species is wind-pollinated and the fragments are very near to each other (Jump and Peñuelas 2006). These studies show the negative genetic impact of forest fragmentation , demonstrating that trees are not at reduced risk from environmental change (Fig. 2.1). This rather unexpected sensitivity of trees to forest management is particularly important under the current climate change since it can exacerbate the impact of human activities on forest dynamics and natural regeneration (Castro et al. 2004a).

Keywords

Climate Change Mediterranean Forest Rapid Climate Change Current Climate Change Phenotypic Integration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Thanks are due to the members of the Spanish thematic network GLOBIMED (www.globimed.net) for inspiring discussions on forests and global change. One anonymous referee helped to improve the text. Financial support was provided by the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science (ECOCLIM, CGL2007–66066-C04–02/BOS) and by the Programa de Actividades de I + D de la Comunidad de Madrid (Consejería de Educación) REMEDINAL-CM (S-0505/AMB/000335).

References

  1. Alcamo, J., Moreno JM, Nováky B, Bindi M, Corobov R, Devoy RJN et al (2007) Europe: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ Hanson CE (eds) Climate change 2007. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 541–580Google Scholar
  2. Alonso A, Valladares F (2007) International efforts on global change research. In: Chuvieco E (ed) Earth observation of global change. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 1–22.Google Scholar
  3. Araujo MB, Guisan A (2006) Five (or so) challenges for species distribution modelling. J Biogeogr 33:1677–1688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Atkin OK, Tjoelker MG (2003) Thermal acclimation and the dynamic response of plant respiration to temperature. Trends Plant Sci 8:343–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Atkin OK, Loveys BR, Atkinson LJ, Pons TL (2006) Phenotypic plasticity and growth temperature: understanding interspecific variability. J Exp Bot 57(2):267–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balaguer L, Martínez-Ferri E, Valladares F, Pérez-Corona ME, Baquedano FJ, Castillo FJ et al (2001) Population divergence in the plasticity of the response of Quercus coccifera to the light environment. Funct Ecol 15:124–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ball MC, Hodges VS, Laughlin GP (1991) Cold-induced photoinhibition limits regeneration of snow gum at tree-line. Funct Ecol 5:663–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barker T, Bashmakov I, Bernstein L, Bogner JE, Bosch PR, Dave R et al. (2007) Mitigation of climate change. Technical summary. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In: Metz B, Davidson OR, Bosch PR, Dave R Meyer LA (eds) Climate change 2007. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York, pp 1–103Google Scholar
  9. Bascompte J, Jordano P, Olesen JM (2006) Asymmetric coevolutionary networks facilitate biodiversity maintenance. Science 312:431–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beerling DJ, Heath J, Woodward FI, Mansfield TA (1996) Drought-Co2 interactions in trees - observations and mechanisms. New Phytol 134(2):235–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Benito-Garzon M, Sanchez-de-Dios R, Sainz-Ollero H (2007) Predictive modelling of tree species distributions on the Iberian Peninsula during the Last Glacial Maximum and Mid-Holocene. Ecography 30:120–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bertness MD, Callaway RM (1994) Positive interactions in communities. Trends Ecol Evol 9:191–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Billington HL, Pelham J (1991) Genetic variation in the date of budburst in Scottish birch populations – implications for climate change. Funct Ecol 5:403–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brooker RW (2006) Plant-plant interactions and environmental change. New Phytol 171(2):271–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Buchmann N (2002) Plant ecophysiology and forest response to global change. Tree Physiol 22:1177–1184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Camarero JJ, Gutiérrez E (2004) Pace and pattern of recent treeline dynamics: response of ecotones to climatic variability in the Spanish Pyrenees. Clim Chang 63:181–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cannell MGR, Thornley JH (2000) Modelling the components of plant respiration: some guiding principles. Ann Bot 85:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cannell MGR, Grace J, Booth A (1989) Possible impacts of climatic warming on trees and forests in the united kingdom: a review. Forestry 62:337–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carrión JS, Yll EI, Walker MJ, Legaz A, Chaín C, López A (2003) Glacial refugia of temperate, Mediterranean and Ibero-North African flora in southeastern Spain: new evidence from cave pollen at two Neanderthal man sites. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 12:119–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Castro J, Zamora R, Hodar JA, Gomez JM (2004a) Seedling establishment of a boreal tree species (Pinus sylvestris) at its southernmost distribution limit: consequences of being in a marginal Mediterranean habitat. J Ecol 92(2):266–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Castro M, Martín-Vide S, Alonso S (2004b) El clima de España: pasado, presente y escenarios de clima para el siglo XXI. In: Moreno JM (ed) Evaluación de los impactos del cambio climático en España. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Madrid, pp 3–64.Google Scholar
  22. Christensen JH, Hewitson B, Busuioc A, Chen A, Gao X, Held I et al (2007) Regional climate projections. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In:Solomon S, D Qin, Manning M, Chen Z Marquis M Averyt KB Tignor M Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York, pp 847–943Google Scholar
  23. Diamond J (2005) Collapse: How societies choose to fail or succeed. Viking, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Dullinger S, Dirnbock T, Grabherr G (2004) Modelling climate change-driven treeline shifts: relative effects of temperature increase, dispersal and invasibility. J Ecol 92(2):241–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Etterson JR (2004) Evolutionary potential of Chamaecrista fasciculata in relation to climate change. II Genet architecture three popul reciprocally plan along environ gradient great plain Evol 58(7):1459–1471Google Scholar
  26. Flores JLF, Jurado E (2003) Are nurse-protégé interactions more common among plants from arid environments? J Veg Sci 14:911–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Franks SJ, Sim S, Weis AE (2007) Rapid evolution of flowering time by an annual plant in response to a climate fluctuation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:1278–1282PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gedney N, Cox PM, Betts RA, Boucher O, Huntingford C, Stott PA (2006) Detection of a direct carbon dioxide effect in continental river runoff records. Nature 439:835–838PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gómez-Aparicio L, Valladares F, Zamora R (2006) Differential light responses of Mediterranean tree saplings: linking ecophysiology with regeneration niche in four co-occurring species. Tree Physiol 26:947–958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grace J (2004) Understanding and managing the global carbon cycle. J Ecol 92(2):189–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grace J, Zhang R (2006) Predicting the effect of climate change on global plant productivity and the carbon cycle. In: Morison JIL, Morecroft MD (eds) Plant growth and climate change. Blackwell, Kundli, pp 187–207.Google Scholar
  32. Gravel D, Canham CD, Beaudet M, Messier C (2006) Reconciling niche and neutrality: the continuum hypothesis. Ecol Lett 9:399–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Greenland D, Goodin DG, Smith RC (eds) (2003) Climate variability and ecosystem response in long-term ecological research sites. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Gutschick VP, BassiriRad H (2003) Extreme events as shaping physiology, ecology, and evolution of plants: toward a unified definition and evaluation of their consequences. New Phytol 160(1):21–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hampe A (2004) Bioclimate envelope models: what they detect and what they hide. Glob Ecol Biogeogr Lett 13:469–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hampe A (2005) Fecundity limits in Frangula alnus (Rhamnaceae) relict populations at the species’ southern range margin. Oecologia 143:377–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hampe A, Petit RJ (2005) Conserving biodiversity under climate change: the rear edge matters. Ecol Lett 8:461–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Harvell CD, Mitchell CE, Ward JR, Altizer S, Dobson AP, Ostfeld RS et al (2002) Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota. Science 296:2158–2162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Howe GT, Aitken SN, Neale DB, Jermstad KD, Wheeler NC, Chen TH (2003) From genotype to phenotype: unraveling the complexities of cold adaptation in forest trees. Can J For Res 81:1247–1266Google Scholar
  40. Inouye DW (2000) The ecological and evolutionary significance of frost in the context of climate change. Ecol Lett 3:457–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jackson ST (2006) Forest genetics in space and time. New Phytol 171(1):1–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Joffre R, Rambal S, Winkel T (2001) Respuestas de las plantas mediterráneas a la limitación de agua: desde la hoja hasta el dosel. In: Zamora R, Pugnaire FI (eds) Aspectos funcionales de los ecosistemas mediterráneos. CSIC-AEET, Granada, pp 37–85.Google Scholar
  43. Jump AS, Peñuelas J (2005) Running to stand still: adaptation and the response of plants to rapid climate change. Ecol Lett 8:1010–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jump AS, Peñuelas J (2006) Genetic effects of chronic habitat fragmentation in a wind-pollinated tree. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:8096–8100PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jump AS, Hunt JM, Peñuelas J (2006) Rapid climate change-related growth decline at the southern range edge of Fagus sylvatica. Glob Chang Biol 12:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Körner C (2003a) Carbon limitation in trees. J Ecol 91:4–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Körner C (2003b) Limitation and stress – always or never? J Veg Sci 14:141–143Google Scholar
  48. Körner C (2006) Significance of temperature in plant life. In: Morison JIL, Morecroft MD (eds) Plant growth and climate change. Blackwell, Kundli, pp. 48–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Körner C, Paulsen J (2004) A world-wide study of high altitude treeline temperatures. J Biogeogr 31:713–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kullman L (2002) Rapid recent range-margin rise of tree and shrub species in the Swedish Scandes. J Ecol 90:68–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lambers H, Chapin FS III, Pons TL (1998) Plant physiological ecology. Springer, YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Larcher W (1995) Physiological plant ecology: ecophysiology and stress physiology of functional groups. Springer, Berlin/HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lloret F, Peñuelas J, Estiarte M (2004) Experimental evidence of reduced diversity of seedlings due to climate modification in a Mediterranean-type community. Glob Chang Biol 10(2):248–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lloyd AH, Fastie CL (2003) Recent changes in treeline forest distribution and structure in interior Alaska. Ecoscience 10:176–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Maestre FT, Cortina J (2004) Do positive interactions increase with abiotic stress? A test from a semi-arid steppe. Proc Royal Soc London Ser B Biol Sci 271:S331–S333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Maestre FT, Valladares F, Reynolds JF (2005) Is the change of plant-plant interactions with abiotic stress predictable? A meta-analysis of field results in arid environments. J Ecol 93:748–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Maestre FT, Valladares F, Reynolds JF (2006) The stress-gradient hypothesis does not fit all relationships between plant–plant interactions and abiotic stress: further insights from arid environments. J Ecol 94:17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Martínez-Alonso C, Valladares F, Camarero JJ, López Arias M, Serrano M, Rodríguez JA (2007) The uncoupling of secondary growth, cone and litter production by intradecadal climatic variability in a Mediterranean Scots Pine Forest. For Ecol Manag 253:19–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Matesanz S, Brooker RW, Valladares F, Klotz S (2009) Temporal dynamics of marginal steppic vegetation over a 26-year period of substantial environmental change. J Veg Sci 20:299–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Meehl GA, StockerTF, Collins WD, Friedlingstein P, Gaye AT, Gregory JM. et al (2007) Global climate projections. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York, pp 747–847Google Scholar
  61. Mejías JA, Arroyo J, Ojeda F (2002) Reproductive ecology of Rhododendron ponticum (Ericaceae) in relict Mediterranean populations. Bot J Linn Soc 140:297–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Menzel A, Sparks TH, Estrella N, Koch E, Aasa A, Ahas R et al (2006) European phenological response to climate change matches the warming pattern. Glob Chang Biol 12:1969–1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Miriti MN (2006) Ontogenetic shift from facilitation to competition in a desert shrub. J Ecol 94:973–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mittler R (2006) Abiotic stress, the field environment and stress combination. Trends Plant Sci 11:15–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mooney HA, Winner WE, Pell EJ (eds) (1991) Response of plants to multiple stresses. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  66. Morales P, Sykes MT, Prentice IC, Smith P, Smith B, Bugmann H et al (2005) Comparing and evaluating process-based ecosystem model predictions of carbon and water fluxes in major European forest biomes. Glob Chang Biol 11:2211–2233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nabuurs GJ, Masera O, Andrasko K, Benitez-Ponce P, Boer R, Dutschke M et al (2007) Forests. Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ Hanson CE (eds) Climate change 2007. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1–73Google Scholar
  68. Niinemets Ü (2006) The controversy over traits conferring shade-tolerance in trees: ontogenetic changes revisited. J Ecol 94:464–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Niinemets U, Valladares F (2006) Tolerance to shade, drought and waterlogging of temperate, Northern hemisphere trees and shrubs. Ecol Monogr 76:521–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ogaya R, Peñuelas J (2003) Comparative field study of Quercus ilex and Phillyrea latifolia: photosynthetic response to experimental drought conditions. Environ Exp Bot 50:137–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Parmesan C (1996) Climate and species range. Nature 382:765–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Parmesan C (2006) Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 37:637–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Peñuelas J, Boada M (2003) A global change-induced biome shift in the Montseny mountains (NE Spain). Glob Chang Biol 9:131–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Peñuelas J, Filella I (2001) Phenology: responses to a warming world. Science 294:793–795PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Petit RJ, Hampe A (2006) Some evolutionary consequences of being a tree. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 37:187–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Petit RJ, Hampe A, Cheddadi R (2005) Climate changes and tree phylogeography in the Mediterranean. Taxon 54(4):877–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Piersma T, Drent J (2003) Phenotypic flexibility and the evolution of organismal design. Trends Ecol Evol 18:228–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pinker RT, Zhang B, Dutton EG (2005) Do satellites detect trends in surface solar radiation? Science 308:850–853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pulido F, Valladares F, Calleja JA, Moreno G, González-Bornay G (2008) Tertiary relict trees under Mediterranean climate: abiotic constraints on persistence of Prunus lusitanica at the eroding edge of its range. J Biogeogr. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2008.01898.x Google Scholar
  80. Rambal S, Joffre R, Ourcival JM, Cavender-Bares J, Rocheteau A (2004) The growth respiration component in eddy CO2 flux from a Quercus ilex Mediterranean forest. Glob Chang Biol 10(9):1460–1469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rehfeldt G, Wykoff WR, Ying CC (2001) Physiological plasticity, evolution, and impacts of a changing climate on Pinus contorta. Clim Chang 50:355–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Reichstein M, Tenhunen JD, Roupsard O, Ourcival JM, Rambal S, Miglietta F et al (2002) Severe drought effects on ecosystem CO2 and H2O fluxes at three Mediterranean evergreen sites: revision of current hypotheses? Glob Chang Biol 8(10):999–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Richardson AD, Bailey AS, Denny EG, Martin CW, O’Keefe J (2006) Phenology of a northern hardwood forest canopy. Glob Chang Biol 12(7):1174–1188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Roderick ML, Farquhar GD (2005) Changes in New Zealand pan evaporation since the 1970s. Int J Climatol 25:2031–2039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Roderick ML, Farquhar GD, Berry SL, Noble IR (2001) On the direct effect of clouds and atmospheric particles on the productivity and structure of vegetation. Oecologia 129:21–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sánchez-Gómez D, Valladares F, Zavala MA (2006a) Performance of seedlings of Mediterranean woody species under experimental gradients of irradiance and water availability: trade-offs and evidence for niche differentiation. New Phytol 170:795–806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sánchez-Gómez D, Zavala MA, Valladares F (2006b) Seedling survival responses to irradiance are differentially influenced by low-water availability in four tree species of the Iberian cool temperate–Mediterranean ecotone. Acta Oecol 30:322–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sanz-Perez V, Castro-Diez P, Valladares F (2008) Differential and interactive effects of temperature and photoperiod on budburst of two co-occurring Mediterranean oaks. Tree Physiol (in press)Google Scholar
  89. Savolainen O, Bokma F, Garcia-Gil R, Komulainen P, Repo T (2004) Genetic variation in cessation of growth and frost hardiness and consequences for adaptation of Pinus sylvestris to climatic changes. For Ecol Manag 197:79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Saxe H, Cannell MGR, Johnsen O, Ryan MG, Vourlitis G (2001) Tree and forest functioning in response to global warming. New Phytol 149:369–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Stanhill G, Cohen S (2001) Global dimming: a review of the evidence for a widespread and significant reduction in global radiation with discussion of its probable causes and possible agricultural consequences. Agr For Meterorol 107:255–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sturm M, Racine C, Tape K (2001) Climate change: increasing shrub abundance in the arctic. Nature 411:546–547PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Suc JP (1984) Origin and evolution of the mediterranean vegetation and climate in Europe. Nature 307:429–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Taschler, D., Neuner, G. (2004). Summer frost resistance and freezing patterns measured in situ in leaves of major alpine plant growth forms in relation to their upper distribution boundary. Plant Cell Environ, 737–746.Google Scholar
  95. Thuiller W, Lavorel S, Araujo MB, Sykes MT, Prentice IC (2005) Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe. PNAS 102:8245–8250PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tielborger K, Kadmon R (2000) Temporal environmental variation tips the balance between facilitation and interference in desert plants. Ecology 81(6):1544–1553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Valiente-Banuet A, Vital-Rumebe A, Verdu M, Callaway RM (2006) Modern Quaternary plant lineages promote diversity through facilitation of ancient tertiary lineages. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:16812–16817PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Valladares F (2003) Light heterogeneity and plants: from ecophysiology to species coexistence and biodiversity. In: Esser K, Lüttge U, Beyschlag W, Hellwig F (eds) Progress in botany, vol 64. Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 439–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Valladares F (2004a) Global change and radiation in Mediterranean forest ecosystems: a meeting point for ecology and management. In: Arianoutsou M, Papanastasis V (eds) Ecology, conservation and sustainable management of mediterranean type ecosystems of the world. Millpress, Rotterdam, pp 1–4.Google Scholar
  100. Valladares F (ed) (2004b) Ecología del bosque mediterraneo en un mundo cambiante. Organismo Autónomo de Parques Nacionales, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, MadridGoogle Scholar
  101. Valladares F, Gianoli E (2007) How much ecology do we need to know to restore Mediterranean ecosystems? Restor Ecol 15:363–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Valladares F, Niinemets Ü (2008) Shade tolerance, a key plant trait of complex nature and consequences. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 39:343–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Valladares F, Pearcy RW (1997) Interactions between water stress, sun-shade acclimation, heat tolerance and photoinhibition in the sclerophyll Heteromeles arbutifolia. Plant Cell Environ 20:25–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Valladares F, Pearcy RW (2002) Drought can be more critical in the shade than in the sun: a field study of carbon gain and photoinhibition in a Californian shrub during a dry El Niño year. Plant Cell Environ 25:749–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Valladares F, Sánchez-Gómez D (2006) Ecophysiological traits associated with drought in Mediterranean tree seedlings: individual responses versus interspecific trends in eleven species. Plant Biol 8:688–697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Valladares F, Balaguer L, Martinez-Ferri E, Perez-Corona E, Manrique E (2002) Plasticity, instability and canalization: is the phenotypic variation in seedlings of sclerophyll oaks consistent with the environmental unpredictability of Mediterranean ecosystems? New Phytol 156:457–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Valladares F, Arrieta S, Aranda I, Lorenzo D, Tena D, Sánchez-Gómez D et al (2005a) Shade tolerance, photoinhibition sensitivity and phenotypic plasticity of Ilex aquifolium in continental-Mediterranean sites. Tree Physiol 25:1041–1052PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Valladares F, Dobarro I, Sánchez-Gómez D, Pearcy RW (2005b) Photoinhibition and drought in Mediterranean woody saplings: scaling effects and interactions in sun and shade phenotypes. J Exp Bot 56:483–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Valladares F, Sanchez D, Zavala MA (2006) Quantitative estimation of phenotypic plasticity: bridging the gap between the evolutionary concept and its ecological applications. J Ecol 94:1103–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Valladares F, Gianoli E, Gómez JM (2007) Ecological limits to plant phenotypic plasticity. Tansley review. New Phytol 146:749–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Walther GR, Post E, Convey P, Menzel A, Parmesan C, Beebee TJC et al (2002) Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature 426:389–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wild M, Gilgen H, Roesch A, Ohmura A, Long CN, Dutton EG et al (2005) From dimming to brightening: decadal changes in solar radiation at Earth’s surface. Science 308:847–850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wilson R, Gutierrez D, Gutierrez J, Martínez D, Agudo R, Monserrat VJ (2005) Changes to the elevational limits and extent of species ranges associated with climate change. Ecol Lett 8:1138–1146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Woodward FI (1987) Stomatal numbers are sensitive to increases in CO2 from pre-industrial levels. Nature 327:617–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Zaragoza-Castells J, Sánchez-Gómez D, Hartley IP, Matesanz S, Valladares F, Lloyd J et al (2007a) Climate-dependent variations in leaf respiration in a dry-land, low productivity Mediterranean forest: the importance of thermal acclimation in both high-light and shaded habitats. Funct Ecol 22(1):172–184Google Scholar
  116. Zaragoza-Castells J, Sánchez-Gómez D, Valladares F, Hurry V, Atkin OK (2007b) Does growth irradiance affect temperature-dependence and thermal acclimation of leaf respiration? Insights from a Mediterranean tree with long-lived leaves. Plant Cell Environ 30:820–833PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zavaleta ES, Thomas BD, Chiariello NR, Asner GP, Shaw MR, Field CB (2003) Plants reverse warming effect on ecosystem water balance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:9892–9893PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Ziska LH, Bunce JA (2006) Plant responses to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide. In Morison JIL, Morecroft MD (eds) Plant growth and climate change. Blackwell, Kundli, pp 17–47Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MNCN-CSICMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations