From Fields to Particles

  • Thanu Padmanabhan
Part of the Graduate Texts in Physics book series (GTP)


In the previous chapters we obtained the propagation amplitude \(\mathcal{G}(x_2;x_1)\) by two different methods. First we computed it by summing over paths in the path integral for a free relativistic particle. Second, we obtained \(\mathcal{G}(x_2;x_1)\) by studying how an external c-number source creates and destroys particles from the vacuum state.


Harmonic Oscillator Gauge Transformation Vacuum State Vacuum Expectation Annihilation Operator 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thanu Padmanabhan
    • 1
  1. 1.Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and AstrophysicsPuneIndia

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