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Microbes and the Fossil Record: Selected Topics in Paleomicrobiology

  • Alexandru M. F. TomescuEmail author
  • Ashley A. Klymiuk
  • Kelly K. S. Matsunaga
  • Alexander C. Bippus
  • Glenn W. K. Shelton
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Environmental Microbiology book series (AEM, volume 1)

Abstract

The study of microbial fossils involves a broad array of disciplines and covers a vast diversity of topics, of which we review a select few, summarizing the state of the art. Microbes are found as body fossils preserved in different modes and have also produced recognizable structures in the rock record (microbialites, microborings). Study of the microbial fossil record and controversies arising from it have provided the impetus for the assembly and refining of powerful sets of criteria for recognition of bona fide microbial fossils. Different types of fossil evidence concur in demonstrating that microbial life was present in the Archean, close to 3.5 billion years ago. Early eukaryotes also fall within the microbial realm and criteria developed for their recognition date the oldest unequivocal evidence close to 2.0 billion years ago (Paleoproterozoic), but Archean microfossils >3 billion years old are strong contenders for earliest eukaryotes. In another dimension of their contribution to the fossil record, microbes play ubiquitous roles in fossil preservation, from facilitating authigenic mineralization to replicating soft tissue with extracellular polymeric substances, forming biofilms that inhibit decay of biological material, or stabilizing sediment interfaces. Finally, studies of the microbial fossil record are relevant to profound, perennial questions that have puzzled humanity and science—they provide the only direct window onto the beginnings and early evolution of life; and the methods and criteria developed for recognizing ancient, inconspicuous traces of life have yielded an approach directly applicable to the search for traces of life on other worlds.

Keywords

Fossil Microbial Biogenicity Prokaryote Eukaryote Fossil preservation Archean Proterozoic Microbialite Stromatolite Microbially induced sedimentary structure (MISS) Microboring 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are indebted to Emma Fryer for momentous help with obtaining permissions from publishers to use copyrighted material.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexandru M. F. Tomescu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ashley A. Klymiuk
    • 2
  • Kelly K. S. Matsunaga
    • 1
  • Alexander C. Bippus
    • 1
  • Glenn W. K. Shelton
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesHumboldt State UniversityArcataUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA

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