National Security in a Hyper-connected World

Global Interdependence and National Security
  • Christian O. FjäderEmail author
Part of the Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications book series (ASTSA)


The objective of this chapter is to explore the opportunities and threats this hyper-connectivity presents to national security, specifically from an economic security point of view. How can national critical societal functions and infrastructures be secured against transnational and extra-sovereign dependencies that extend beyond the mandate of sovereign states? Moreover, how can a nation secure its external “lifelines” without violating the sovereignty of states these reside in or pass through? In the theoretical level these questions relate to the sovereign state’s autonomy of action in economics and national security in a system that increasingly functions on transnational and extraterritorial logic.


National security Critical infrastructure protection Resilience Economic security Globalization 


  1. Aaltola M, Käpylä J, Mikkola M, Behr T (2014) Towards the geopolitics of flows: implications for finland. Available via FIIA. Accessed 7 June 2015
  2. Australian Government (2010) Critical infrastructure resilience Strategy. Available via TISN. Accessed 28 May 2015
  3. BBC News (2010) Wikileaks: site list reveals US sensitivities. Available via BBC. Accessed 30 May 2015
  4. BlackRock (2015). Accessed 27 May 2015
  5. Buzan B (2007) What is national security in the age of globalization? Department of Foreign Affairs, Oslo. Available via Refleks.¼493187. Accessed 3 July 2013
  6. Chatham House (2013) Cyber Security and Global Interdependence: What is Critical?:6. Available via Chatham House. Accessed 29 May 2015, p 8
  7. Chatham House (2014) Cyber Security and Global Interdependence: What is Critical? Accessed 2 June 2015
  8. CNN (1997) Experts prepare for ‘an electronic Pearl Harbor’. Available via CNN. Accessed 26 May 2015
  9. DHL (2014) Global Connectedness Index 2014. Available via DHL. Accessed 2 May 2015, p 8
  10. Dillon M (2005) Global security in the 21st century: circulation, complexity and contingency. In: The globalisation of security, ISP/NSC Briefing Paper 2005/02, p 2Google Scholar
  11. European Union (2008) Council directive 2008//114/EC. Available via Eur-Lex. Accessed 30 May 2015
  12. European Network and Information Security Agency (2012) European Cyber Security strategies. Available via ENISA. Accessed 15 May 2015
  13. European Commission (2013) Cybersecurity strategy of the European Union—an open, safe and secure cyberspace. Available via EC. Accessed 26 May 2015
  14. European Commission (2015) Critical Infrastructure. Available via EC. Accessed 30 May 2015
  15. European Union (2015) EU-US-Canada Expert Meeting on Critical Infrastructure Protection. Available via EU Newsroom. Accessed 30 May 2015
  16. Forbes (2013) Why we could easily have another flash crash. Available via Forbes. Accessed 27 May 2015
  17. Government of Canada—Public Safety Canada (2015) Securing an open society: Canada’s National Security Policy. Available via Public Safety Canada. Accessed 01 May 2015
  18. Government of Canada (2015) Canada’s economic action plan. Available via Accessed 29 May 2015
  19. Government of the Netherlands (2013) A secure Netherlands in a Secure world: international security strategy. Available via Government of the Netherlands. Accessed 24 May 2014
  20. Helbing D (2013) Globally networked risks and how to respond. Nature 497:51–59CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Heng Y-K (2013) A global city in an age of global risks: Singapore’s evolving discourse on vulnerability. Contemporary Southeast Asia 35(3):423–446CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  22. HM Government (2010) A strong Britain in the age of uncertainty: the national security strategy. Available via HMG. Accessed 28 March 2014
  23. Investopedia (2014) High-frequency trading—HTF. Accessed 26 May 2015
  24. Kahler M (2004) Economic security in the age of globalization: Definition and provision. The Pacific Review 17(4):485–502Google Scholar
  25. Keohane RO, Nye JS (1977) Power and interdependence: world politics in transition. Little, Brown, BostonGoogle Scholar
  26. Krause K (2007) National security in the age of globalization: a brainstorming note, Department of Foreign Affairs, Oslo. Available via Refleks. Accessed 3 July 2013
  27. McKinsey Global Institute (MGI) (2013) Disruptive technologies: advances that will transform life, business and the global economy. Available via MGI. Accessed 26 May 2015. p 52
  28. Milner H (2009) Power, interdependence, and Nonstate Actors in world politics: researchfrontiers. In: Milner H, Moravcsik A (2009) Power, interdependence, and nonstate actors in world politics. Princeton University Press, p 15Google Scholar
  29. Moisio S, Paasi A (2013) Beyond state-centricity: geopolitics of changing state spaces. Geopolitics 18(2):255–266Google Scholar
  30. Morhenthau HJ (1960) Politics among nations: the struggle for power and peace. Alfred A. Knopf, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Nanto D (2011) Economics and national security: issues and implications for U.S. policy. Congressional Research Service (CRS). Available via FAS. Accessed 27 May 2015
  32. NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (2015) Cyber definitions. Available via CCDCOE. Accessed 5 June 2015
  33. Neowin (2013) Microsoft: internet users will double to 4 billion worldwide by 2020. Available via Neowin. Accessed 30 May 2015
  34. Neu C.R, Wolf J. (1994) The economic dimensions of national security. RAND, Santa Monica. Available via RAND. Accessed 1 June 2015, p xi–xii
  35. Nye J (2010) Cyber power. Available via Belfer Centre for Science and International Affairs,, Accessed 6 June 2015, p 15
  36. OECD (2008) Protection of ‘Critical Infrastructure’ and the role of investment policies relating to national security. Available via OECD. Accessed 8 May 2013, p 3
  37. Ripsman NM, Paul TV (2010) Globalization and the national security state. Oxford University Press, Oxford, p 10Google Scholar
  38. Telecom Circle (2014) What is the internet of things? Available via Telecom Circle. Accessed 26 May 2015
  39. The Economist Intelligence Unit (2014) The hypeconnected economy: how the growing interconnectedness of society is changing the landscape for business. Available via EUI: Accessed 15 May 2015
  40. The New York Times (2012) Panetta warns of dire threat of cyber attacks on U.S. Available via NY Times. Accessed 26 May 2015Google Scholar
  41. UK Cabinet Office (2010) Strategic framework and policy statement on improving the resilience of critical infrastructure to disruption from natural hazards. Available via Cabinet Office. Accessed 25 May 2015
  42. Value Walk (2014) Goldman Projects “Internet of Things” to become biggest mega trend yet. Accessed 26 May 2015
  43. We are Social (2015) Digital, social & mobile worldwide in 2015. Available via We are Social. Accessed 15 May 2015
  44. Whitehouse (2012) National strategy for the global supply chain security. Available via Whitehouse. Accessed 2 June 2015
  45. Whitehouse, President Obama (2013) Cybersecurity. Available via Whitehouse. Accessed 2 June 2015
  46. World Economic Forum (2012) Risk and responsibility in a hyperconnected world. Available via World Economic Forum. Accessed 15 May 2015
  47. World Economic Forum and Accenture (2013) Building resilience in supply chains. Available via WEF., p 7
  48. Zurich, Atlantic Council (2014) Beyond data breaches: global interconnections of cyber risk. Available via Zurich., p 14

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Finnish Institute of International AffairsHelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations