Role of Growth Factors in Modulation of the Microvasculature in Adult Skeletal Muscle
Post-natal skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue that has the capacity to regenerate rapidly following injury, and to undergo significant modification in tissue mass (i.e. atrophy/hypertrophy) in response to global metabolic changes. These processes are reliant largely on soluble factors that directly modulate muscle regeneration and mass. However, skeletal muscle function also depends on an adequate blood supply. Thus muscle regeneration and changes in muscle mass, particularly hypertrophy, also demand rapid changes in the microvasculature. Recent evidence clearly demonstrates a critical role for soluble growth factors in the tight regulation of angiogenic expansion of the muscle microvasculature. Furthermore, exogenous modulation of these factors has the capacity to impact directly on angiogenesis and thus, indirectly, on muscle regeneration, growth and performance. This chapter reviews recent developments in understanding the role of growth factors in modulating the skeletal muscle microvasculature, and the potential therapeutic applications of exogenous angiogenic and anti-angiogenic mediators in promoting effective growth and regeneration, and ameliorating certain diseases, of skeletal muscle.
KeywordsAngiogenesis Vascular endothelial growth factor Cytokine Skeletal muscle Myogenesis Hypertrophy
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