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Function of Membrane-Associated Proteoglycans in the Regulation of Satellite Cell Growth

  • Yan SongEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 900)

Abstract

Muscle growth can be divided into embryonic and postnatal periods. During the embryonic period, mesenchymal stem cells proliferate and differentiate to form muscle fibers. Postnatal muscle growth (hypertrophy) is characterized by the enlargement of existing muscle fiber size. Satellite cells (also known as adult myoblasts) are responsible for hypertrophy. The activity of satellite cells can be regulated by their extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM is composed of collagens, proteoglycans, non-collagenous glycoproteins, cytokines and growth factors. Proteoglycans contain a central core protein with covalently attached glycosaminoglycans (GAGs: chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and heparan sulfate) and N- or O-linked glycosylation chains. Membrane-associated proteoglycans attach to the cell membrane either through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor or transmembrane domain. The GAGs can bind proteins including cytokines and growth factors. Both cytokines and growth factors play important roles in regulating satellite cell growth and development. Cytokines are generally associated with immune cells. However, cytokines can also affect muscle cell development. For instance, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leukemia inhibitory factor have been reported to affect the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells and myoblasts. Growth factors are potent stimulators or inhibitors of satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. The proper function of some cytokines and growth factors requires an interaction with the cell membrane-associated proteoglycans to enhance the affinity to bind to their primary receptors to initiate downstream signal transduction. This chapter is focused on the interaction of membrane-associated proteoglycans with cytokines and growth factors, and their role in satellite cell growth and development.

Keywords

Cytokine Growth factor Proteoglycan Satellite cell Skeletal muscle 

Abbreviations

C1

constant region 1

C2

constant region 2

ECM

extracellular matrix

FGF

fibroblast growth factor

FGF2

fibroblast growth factor 2

FGFR

fibroblast growth factor receptor

GAGs

glycosaminoglycans

GPI

glycosylphosphatidylinositol

HGF

hepatocyte growth factor

HSPG

heparan sulfate proteoglycan

IGF

insulin-like growth factor

IGF-I

insulin-like growth factor-I

IGF-II

insulin-like growth factor-II

IL-6

interleukin-6

LIF

leukemia inhibitory factor

MAP

mitogen-activated protein

N-glycosylated chain

N-linked glycosylated chain

PIP2

phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate

PKC

protein kinase C

PKCα

protein kinase C alpha

TGF

transforming growth factor

TGF-β

transforming growth factor-beta

TGF-β1

transforming growth factor-beta 1

TGF-β2

transforming growth factor-beta 2

TNF-α

tumor necrosis factor-alpha

V

variable region

VEGF

vascular endothelial growth factor

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dana-Farber Cancer InstituteHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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