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Genetic Improvement of Cotton

  • S Manickam
  • A. H. PrakashEmail author
Chapter
  • 919 Downloads
Part of the Sustainable Development and Biodiversity book series (SDEB, volume 10)

Abstract

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important natural fiber crop cultivated in nearly 80 countries globally. India, China, and USA are the leading countries cultivating cotton on large scale. The cultivated and wild cotton species are differentiated mainly based on the type of seed hairs borne on the seeds. Of the 50 species of the genus Gossypium, four are cultivated commercially in different parts of the world. In this chapter, classification of cotton species, its morphology, floral biology etc. have been detailed. Origin of both Old World as well as New World cotton is discussed. A detailed account of gene pools, i.e., primary, secondary, and tertiary gene pools available in cotton is discussed and crossability among various species and their usefulness for commercial exploitation through introgression breeding is detailed. Genome grouping, genetic map for various useful traits have also been discussed. Cotton has been the most exploited crop through genetic engineering tools and a detailed discussion is presented on the genetic enhancement of cotton through biotechnological interventions for both biotic and abiotic stress management apart from enhancing the nutritional status of cotton seed. In most of the cotton growing countries, it is cultivated mainly under rain-fed situations, where water is the most limiting factor for productivity. Hence, detailed information on developing drought-resistant cultivars through both conventional and by using advanced QTL information has been furnished. Molecular markers serve as an important tool for the modern day breeders and information pertaining to marker technology published in cotton is also discussed. Information pertaining exploitation of male sterility system in cotton is detailed.

Keywords

Cotton Taxonomy Evolution Genetic modification Marker-assisted selection Male sterility 

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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ICAR-Central Institute for Cotton ResearchRegional StationCoimbatoreIndia

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