Advertisement

Genetic Improvement in the Genus Eleusine

  • Renuka AgrawalEmail author
  • Ankur Maheshwari
Chapter
Part of the Sustainable Development and Biodiversity book series (SDEB, volume 10)

Abstract

Eleusine (Poaceae) is a small genus (x = 8, 9, 10) consisting of six diploid and three tetraploid species. Eleusine coracana (finger millet; 2n = 4x = 36) is the only cultivated species of the genus which holds a prominent place in the cropping sequences in semi-arid regions of India, Africa and other South Asian countries. The grain of finger millet is used to prepare diverse types of food items and also have medicinal value. Finger millet and its wild relatives are rich source of disease resistance and other agronomically important alleles. These alleles can be used successfully for crop improvement programs. Therefore, in recent years considerable interest has been centred towards the understanding of the relationships between the cultivated crop plant and its wild relatives. This chapter gives an overview on current understanding on the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Eleusine and other resources that can be utilized for successful genetic improvement programs.

Keywords

Eleusine Finger millet Progenitor Allotetraploid 

References

  1. Agrawal R, Agrawal N, Tandon R, Raina SN (2014) Chloroplast genes as genetic markers for inferring patterns of change, maternal ancestry and phylogenetic relationships among Eleusine species. AoB Plants 6:plt056Google Scholar
  2. Avdulov NP (1928) Systematic karyology of family gramineae. Daily Paper All Union Botanists, London. 1:65–67Google Scholar
  3. Barbeau WE, Hilu KW (1993) Protein, calcium, iron and amino acid content of selected wild and domesticated cultivars of finger millet. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 43:97–104CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhandari MM (1974) Famine foods in the Rajasthan desert. Econ Bot 28(1):73–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhatnagar SS (1952) The wealth of India, vol III. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, pp 160–166Google Scholar
  6. Bisht MS, Mukai Y (2000) Mapping of rDNA on the chromosomes of Eleusine species by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Genes Genet Syst 75:343–348CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bisht MS, Mukai Y (2001a) Genomic in situ hybridization identifies genome donor of finger millet (Eleusine coracana). Theor Appl Genet 102:825–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bisht MS, Mukai Y (2001b) Identification of genome donors to the wild species of finger millet, Eleusine africana by genomic in situ hybridization. Breed Sci 51:263–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bisht MS, Mukai Y (2002) Genome organization and polyploid evolution in the genus Eleusine (Poaceae). Plant Syst Evol 233:243–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buell CR (2009) Poaceae Genomes: going from unattainable to becoming a model clade for comparative plant genomics. Plant Physiol 149:111–116CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Burkill IH (1935) A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula, vols 2. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  12. Chandrashekar A (2010) Finger millet Eleusine coracana. Adv Food Nutr Res 59:215–262CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chennaveeraiah MS, Hiremath SC (1974a) Genome analysis of Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn. Euphytica 23:489–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chennaveeraiah MS, Hiremath SC (1974b) Character association pattern in Eleusine Gaertn. Karnataka Univ J Sci 19:257–275Google Scholar
  15. Clayton WD, Renvoize SA (1986) Genera Graminum: grasses of the World. Kew Bull Addl Ser 13. Her majesty’s Stationary Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Cobley LS (1956) An introduction to the botany of tropical crops. Longmans, GreenGoogle Scholar
  17. Columbus JT, Cerros-Tlatilpa R, Kinny MS, Siqueiros-Del-gado ME, Bell HL, Griffith MP, Refulio-Rodriguez NF (2007) Phlylogenetics of chloridoideae (gramineae): a preliminary study based on nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers and chloroplast trnL-F sequences. Aliso 23:565–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. De Candolle A (1886) Origin of cultivated plants. Hafner Publishing Co, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. De Wet JMJ, Prasada Rao KE, Brink DE, Mengesha MH (1984) Systematics and Evolution of Eleusine coracana (Gramineae). Am J Bot 71(4):550–557Google Scholar
  20. Devarumath RM (1997) Genome homology and differentiation in Eleusine coracana and its wild species. Ph.D. thesis, Karnataka University, Dharwad, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  21. Devarumath RM, Hiremath SC, Rao SR, Kumar A, Sheelavanthmath SS (2005) Genome interrelationship in the genus Eleusine (Poaceae) as revealed through heteroploid crosses. Caryologia 58:300–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Devarumath RM, Sheelavanthmath SS, Hiremath SC (2010) Chromosome pairing analysis in interspecific hybrids among tetraploid species of Eleusine (Poaceae). Indian J Genet 70:299–303Google Scholar
  23. Devos KM (2005) Updating the ‘Crop Circle’. Curr Opin Plant Biol 8:155–162Google Scholar
  24. Dida MM, Devos KM (2006) Finger millet. In: Kole C (ed) Genome mapping and molecular breeding in plants, vol 1., Cereals and milletsSpringer, Heidelberg, pp 333–343Google Scholar
  25. Dida MM, Srinivasachary RS, Bennetzen JL, Gale MD, Devos KM (2007) The genetic map of finger millet, Eleusine coracana. Theor Appl Genet 114:321–332CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dida MM, Wanyera N, Dunn MLH, Bennetzen JL, Devos KM (2008) Population structure and diversity in finger millet (Eleusine coracana) germplasm. Trop Plant Biol 1:131–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Duke JA, Wain KK (1981) Medicinal plants of the world. Computer index with more than 85:12–16Google Scholar
  28. Gale MD, Devos KM (1998) Plant comparative genetics after 10 years. Science 282:656–659CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Hilu KW (1980) Noteworthy collections: Eleusine tristachya. Madroño 27:177–178Google Scholar
  30. Hilu KW (1981) Taxonomic status of the disputable Eleusine compressa (Gramineae). Kew Bull 36:559–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hilu KW (1988) Identification of the ‘‘A’’ genome of finger millet using chloroplast DNA. Genetics 118:163–167PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Hilu KW (1995) Evolution of finger millet: evidence from random amplified polymorphic DNA. Genome 38:232–238CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hilu KW, Alice LA (2001) A phylogeny of the Chloridoideae (Poaceae) based on matK sequences. Syst Bot 26:386–405Google Scholar
  34. Hilu KW, De Wet JMJ (1976) Domestication of Eleusine coracana. Econ Bot 30:199–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hilu KW, DeWet JMJ (1976) Racial evolution in Eleusine coracana ssp. coracana (finger millet). Am J Bot 63(10):1311–1318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hilu KW, Johnson JL (1992) Ribosomal DNA variation in finger millet and wild species of Eleusine (Poaceae). Theor Appl Genet 83:895–902PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hilu KW, Johnson JL (1997) Systematics of Eleusine Gaertn. (Poaceae, Chloridoideae): chloroplast DNA and total evidence. Ann Missouri Bot Gard 84:841–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hilu KW, De Wet JMJ, Seigler D (1978) Flavonoids and systematics of Eleusine. Biochem Syst Ecol 6:247–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hiremath SC, Chennaveeraiah MS (1982) Cytogentical studies in wild and cultivated species of Eleusine (Gramineae). Caryologia 35:57–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hiremath SC, Salimath SS (1991) The quantitative nuclear DNA changes in Eleusine (Gramineae). Plant Syst Evol 178:225–233Google Scholar
  41. Hiremath SC, Salimath SS (1992) The ‘‘A’’ genome donor of Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn. (Gramineae). Theor Appl Genet 84:747–754PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Iyengar KG, Doraiswamy LS, Iyengar RS (1945–1946) Ragi (Eleusine coracana Gaertn). Mysore Agr J 24:33–49Google Scholar
  43. Kennedy-O’byrne J (1957) Notes on African grasses. XXIX. A new species of Eleusine from tropical and South Africa. Kew Bull 11:65–72Google Scholar
  44. Krishnaswamy N (1940) Investigation on the cytology and systematic of the Gramineae. Beih Bot Centralbl 60:1–56Google Scholar
  45. Liu Q, Triplett JK, Wen J, Peterson M (2011) Allotetraploid origin and divergence in Eleusine (Chloridoideae, Poaceae): evidence from low-copy nuclear gene phylogenies and a plastid gene chronogram. Ann Bot 108:1287–1298CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Liu Q, Jiang B, Wen J, Peterson PM (2014) Low-copy nuclear gene and McGISH resolves polyploid history of Eleusine coracana and morphological character evolution in Eleusine. Turk J Bot 38:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lovisolo MR, Galati BG (2007) Ultrastructure and development of the megagametophyte in Eleusine tristachya (Lam.) (Poaceae). Flora 202:293–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lye KA (1999) Nomenclature of finger millet (Poaceae). Lidia 4:x149–151Google Scholar
  49. Mehra KL (1963) Differentiation of cultivated and wild Eleusine species. Phyton 20:189–198Google Scholar
  50. Moffet AA, Hurcombe R (1949) Chromosome numbers of South African grasses. Heredity 3:69–373Google Scholar
  51. Mysore KS, Baird V (1997) Nuclear DNA content in species of Eleusine (Gramineae): a critical re-evaluation using laser flow cytometry. Plant Syst Evol 207:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. National Research Council (1996) Lost Crops of Africa, vol I. Grains. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  53. Naylor RL, Falcon WP, Goodman RM, Jahn MM, Sengooba T, Tefera H, Nelson RJ (2004) Biotechnology in the developing world: a case for increased investments in orphan crops. Food Policy 29:15–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Neves SS (2011) Eleusine. In: Kole C (ed) Wild crop relatives: genomic and breeding resources, millets and grasses. Springer, Berlin, pp 113–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Neves SS, Clark GS, Hilu KW, Baird WV (2005) Phylogeny of Eleusine (Poaceae: Chloridoideae) based on nuclear ITS and plastid trnTtrnF sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol 35:395–419CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Nout MJR (2009) Rich nutrition from the poorest-Cereal fermentations in Africa and Asia. Food Microbiol 26:685–692CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Peterson PM, Romaschenko K, Johnson G (2010) A classification of the Chloridoideae (Poaceae) based on multi-gene phylogenetic trees. Mol Phylogenet Evol 55:580–598CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Phillips SM (1972) A survey of the Eleusine Gaertn. (Gramineae) in Africa. Kew Bull 27:251–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Phillips SM (1974) Eleusine Gaertn. In: Polhill RM (ed) Flora of Tropical East Africa. London, UK, Crown Agents for Overseas Governments and Administrations, pp 260–267Google Scholar
  60. Phillips SM (1982) A numerical analysis of the Eragrostideae (Gramineae). Kew Bull 37:133–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Phillips SM (1995) Poaceae (Gramineae). In: Hedberg I, Edwards S (eds) Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol 7. Addis Ababa University and Uppsala University, AddisGoogle Scholar
  62. Pradhan A, Nag SK, Patil SK (2010) Dietary management of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaerth) controls diabetes. Curr Sci 98:763–765Google Scholar
  63. Rao P, Krishnamoorthy P (1981) Studies on dry matter production and nutrient uptake by ragi (Eleusine coracana) under different moisture stresses. J Res Andhra Pradesh Agric Univ 3:57–63Google Scholar
  64. Salimath SS (1990). Cytology and genome relations in some species of Eleusine and its allies. Ph.D. thesis, Karnatak University, Dharwad, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  65. Salimath SS, de Oliveira AC, Godwin ID, Bennetzen J (1995a) Assessment of genome origins and genetic diversity in the genus Eleusine with DNA markers. Genome 38:757–763CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Salimath SS, Hiremath SC, Murthy HN (1995b) Genome differentiation patterns in diploid species of Eleusine (Poaceae). Hereditas 122:189–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Srinivasachary DMM, Gale MD, Devos KM (2007) Comparative analyses reveal high levels of conserved colinearity between the finger millet and rice genomes. Theor Appl Genet 115:489–499Google Scholar
  68. Upadhyaya HD, Gowda CLL, Reddy VG (2007) Morphological diversity in finger millet germplasm introduced from Southern and Eastern Africa. J SAT Agr Res 3(1):1–3Google Scholar
  69. Wang ML, Barkley NA, Yu JK, Dean RE, Newman ML, Sorrells ME, Pederson GA (2005) Transfer of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from major cereal crops to minor grass species for germplasm characterization and evaluation. Plant Genet Resour 3:45–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Watt JM, Breyer-Brandwijk MG (1962) The medicinal and poisonous plants of Southern and Eastern Africa, 2nd edn. E & S Livingstone, Edinburgh and LondonGoogle Scholar
  71. Werth CR, Hilu K, Langner CA, Baird WV (1993) Duplicated gene expression for isocitrate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in diploid species of Eleusine (Gramineae). Am J Bot 80:705–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Werth CR, Hilu KW, Langner CA (1994) Isozyme of Eleusine (Gramineae) and the origin of finger millet. Am J Bot 81:1186–1197CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyMiranda House, University of DelhiDelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyZakir Husian Delhi College, University of DelhiNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations