Polymer-Based Nanocomposite Coatings for Anticorrosion Applications

  • Mehdi Honarvar Nazari
  • Xianming ShiEmail author


The successful use of polymeric coatings for corrosion prevention or mitigation is often hindered by their inherently porous microstructure that fails to resist the ingress of detrimental species and/or by their vulnerability to damage by surface abrasion, wear, or scratches. Incorporation of nanomaterials in polymeric coatings can greatly improve their barrier performance. While the last decade has seen a substantial amount of research on polymeric nanocomposite coatings, the knowledge underlying the critical roles nanomaterials play remains scattered. This chapter discusses the utilization of nanotechnology to greatly enhance the properties of polymer-based coatings for anticorrosion applications, by modifying the microstructure of the coating bulk or endowing it with additional functionality. It starts with a brief discussion of the relevant knowledge base, including: microstructure of polymer nanocomposites, influence of nanomodification on properties of polymeric coatings, fabrication approaches, and the use of polymeric nanocoating as a carrier for corrosion inhibitors. It also provides a review of technological advances in the use of nanotechnology to produce high-performance polymeric coatings with outstanding corrosion resistance and other relevant properties. The chapter concludes with a snapshot review of the advanced characterization of nanocomposite coatings for corrosion protection.


Nanocomposite coating Anticorrosion application Self-healing Active protection Encapsulation Nanoidentification 


  1. 1.
    Gacitua WE, Ballerini AA, Zhang J (2005) Polymer nanocomposites: synthetic and natural fillers a review. Maderas, Ciencia y tecnología 7:159–178Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anandhan S, Bandyopadhyay S (2011) Polymer nanocomposites: from synthesis to applications. In: Cuppoletti J (ed) Nanocomposites and polymers with analytical methods. InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, pp 3–26Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jancar J, Douglas JF, Starr FW, Kumar SK, Cassagnau P, Lesser AJ, Sternstein SS, Buehler MJ (2010) Current issues in research on structure–property relationships in polymer nanocomposites. Polymer 51:3321–3343Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bréchet Y, Cavaillé J-Y, Chabert E, Chazeau L, Dendievel R, Flandin L, Gauthier C (2001) “Polymer Based Nanocomposites: Effect of Filler-Filler and Filler-Matrix Interactions,” Adv Eng Mater 3:571–577Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fu Q, Tang C, Deng H, Zhang Q (2010) “Polymer Nanotube Nanocomposites,” In: Mittal V (ed) Polymer nanotube nanocomposites: synthesis, properties, and applications. Wiley, New York, NY, pp 83–112Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shi X, Nguyen TA, Suo Z, Liu Y, Avci R (2009) “Effect of nanoparticles on the anticorrosion and mechanical properties of epoxy coating,” Surf Coat Technol 204:237–245Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shi X, Xiao Z, Wu J (2013) “The use of nanotechnology to improve the bulk and surface properties of steel for structural applications,” In: Pacheco-Torgal F, Diamanti MV, Nazari A, Granqvist C-G (eds) Nanotechnology in eco-efficient construction. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, pp 75–107Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fang FF, Choi HJ, Joo J (2008) “Conducting polymer/clay nanocomposites and their applications,” J Nanosci Nanotechnol 8:1559–1581Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Montemor MF (2014) “Functional and smart coatings for corrosion protection: A review of recent advances,” Surf Coat Technol 258:17–37Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Klosterman D, Wang CS, Rice B, Lafdi K (2003) Conductive polymer nanocomposites. Accessed 6 Mar 2015
  11. 11.
    Mittal V (2010) “Polymer Nanocomposites: Synthesis, Microstructure, and Properties,” In: Mittal V (ed) Optimization of polymer nanocomposite properties. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, pp 1–19Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alexandre M, Dubois P (2000) “Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites: preparation, properties and uses of a new class of materials,” Mater Sci Eng R Rep 28:1–63Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mittal V (2009) “Polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites: a review from preparation to processing,” Materials 2:992–1057Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Xu W-B, Bao S-P, He P-S (2002) “Intercalation and exfoliation behavior of epoxy resin/curing agent/montmorillonite nanocomposite,” J Appl Polym Sci 84:42–849Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Olad A (2011) “Polymer/Clay Nanocomposites,” In: Reddy B (ed) Advances in diverse industrial applications of nanocomposites. InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, pp 113–138Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brent JR, Savjani N, Lewis EA, Haigh SJ, Lewis DJ, O’Brien P (2014) “Production of few-layer phosphorene by liquid exfoliation of black phosphorus,” Chem Commun 50:13338–13341Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wetzel B, Haupert F, Qiu Zhang M (2003) “Epoxy nanocomposites with high mechanical and tribological performance,” Compos Sci Technol 63:2055–2067Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang MQ, Rong MZ, Yu SL, Wetzel B, Friedrich K (2002) “Improvement of Tribological Performance of Epoxy by the Addition of Irradiation Grafted Nano-Inorganic Particles,” Macromol Mater Eng 287:111–115Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yamini S, Young RJ (1977) “Stability of crack propagation in epoxy resins,” Polymer 18:1075–1080Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zaarei D, Sarabi AA, Sharif F, Kassiriha SM (2008) “Structure, properties and corrosion resistivity of polymeric nanocomposite coatings based on layered silicates,” J Coat Technol Res 5:241–249Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Alam J, Riaz U, Ashraf SM, Ahmad S (2007) “Corrosion-protective performance of nano polyaniline/ferrite dispersed alkyd coatings,” J Coat Technol Res 5:123–128Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dhoke SK, Khanna AS, Sinha TJM (2009) “Effect of nano-ZnO particles on the corrosion behavior of alkyd-based waterborne coatings,” Prog Org Coat 64:371–382Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dhoke SK, Khanna AS (2009) “Effect of nano-Fe2O3 particles on the corrosion behavior of alkyd based waterborne coatings,” Corros Sci 51:6–20Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Olad A, Naseri B (2010) “Preparation, characterization and anticorrosive properties of a novel polyaniline/clinoptilolite nanocomposite,” Prog Org Coat 67:233–238Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Heidarian M, Shishesaz MR, Kassiriha SM, Nematollahi M (2010) “Characterization of structure and corrosion resistivity of polyurethane/organoclay nanocomposite coatings prepared through an ultrasonication assisted process,” Prog Org Coat 68:180–188Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ramezanzadeh B, Attar MM (2011) “Studying the effects of micro and nano sized ZnO particles on the corrosion resistance and deterioration behavior of an epoxy-polyamide coating on hot-dip galvanized steel,” Prog Org Coat 71:314–328Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jadhav RS, Patil KJ, Hundiwale DG, Mahulikar PP (2011) “Synthesis of waterborne nanopolyanilne latexes and application of nanopolyaniline particles in epoxy paint formulation for smart corrosion resistivity of carbon steel,” Polym Adv Technol 22:1620–1627Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Madhankumar A, Nagarajan S, Rajendran N, Nishimura T (2011) “EIS evaluation of protective performance and surface characterization of epoxy coating with aluminum nanoparticles after wet and dry corrosion test,” J Solid State Electrochem 16:2085–2093Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Madhankumar A, Rajendran N, Nishimura T (2012) “Influence of Si nanoparticles on the electrochemical behavior of organic coatings on carbon steel in chloride environment,” J Coat Technol Res 9:609–620Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mills DJ, Jamali SS, Paprocka K (2012) “Investigation into the effect of nano-silica on the protective properties of polyurethane coatings,” Surf Coat Technol 209:137–142Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Toloei A, Atashin S, Bahrololoom ME (2013) “A New Approach in Modifying Polymeric Coatings to Increase Corrosion Resistance Properties,” Int Sch Res Not 2013, e648246Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Moazeni N, Mohamad Z, Faisal NLI, Tehrani MA, Dehbari N (2013) “Anticorrosion epoxy coating enriched with hybrid nanozinc dust and halloysite nanotubes,” J Appl Polym Sci 130:955–960Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Singh-Beemat J, Iroh JO, Feng L (2013) “Mechanism of corrosion protection of aluminum alloy substrate by hybrid polymer nanocomposite coatings,” Prog Org Coat 76:1576–1580Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zomorodian A, Garcia MP, Moura e Silva T, Fernandes JCS, Fernandes MH, Montemor MF (2013) “Corrosion resistance of a composite polymeric coating applied on biodegradable AZ31 magnesium alloy,” Acta Biomater 9:8660–8670Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yu Y-H, Lin Y-Y, Lin C-H, Chan C-C, Huang Y-C (2013) “High-performance polystyrene/graphene-based nanocomposites with excellent anti-corrosion properties,” Polym Chem 5:535–550Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tomić MD, Dunjić B, Likić V, Bajat J, Rogan J, Djonlagić J (2014) “The use of nanoclay in preparation of epoxy anticorrosive coatings,” Prog Org Coat 77:518–527Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wang N, Wu YH, Cheng KQ, Zhang J (2014) “Investigation on anticorrosion performance of polyaniline-mesoporous MCM-41 composites in new water-based epoxy coating,” Mater Corros 65:968–976Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Deyab MA (2014) “Corrosion protection of aluminum bipolar plates with polyaniline coating containing carbon nanotubes in acidic medium inside the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell,” J Power Sources 268:50–55Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Madhan Kumar A, Gasem ZM (2015) “In situ electrochemical synthesis of polyaniline/f-MWCNT nanocomposite coatings on mild steel for corrosion protection in 3.5 % NaCl solution,” Prog Org Coat 78:387–394Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pour-Ali S, Dehghanian C, Kosari A (2015) “Corrosion protection of the reinforcing steels in chloride-laden concrete environment through epoxy/polyaniline–camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating,” Corros Sci 90:239–247Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ganjaee Sari M, Ramezanzadeh B, Shahbazi M, Pakdel AS (2015) “Influence of nanoclay particles modification by polyester-amide hyperbranched polymer on the corrosion protective performance of the epoxy nanocomposite,” Corros Sci 92:162–172Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Haddadi SA, Mahdavian M, Karimi E (2015) “Evaluation of the corrosion protection properties of an epoxy coating containing sol–gel surface modified nano-zirconia on mild steel,” RSC Adv 5:28769–28777Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ates M, Topkaya E (2015) “Review study of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and equivalent electrical circuits of conducting polymers on carbon surfaces,” Prog Org Coat 82:33–40Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lam CK, Lau KT (2006) “Localized elastic modulus distribution of nanoclay/epoxy composites by using nanoindentation,” Compos Struct 75:553–558Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hartwig A, Sebald M, Pütz D, Aberle L (2005) “Preparation, Characterisation and Properties of Nanocomposites Based on Epoxy Resins – An Overview,” Macromol Symp 221:127–136Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Shi G, Zhang MQ, Rong MZ, Wetzel B, Friedrich K (2003) “Friction and wear of low nanometer Si3N4 filled epoxy composites,” Wear 254:784–796Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chaudhary S, Parthasarathy S, Kumar D, Rajagopal C, Roy P (2014) “Simple toughening of epoxy thermosets by preformed thermoplastics,” SPE plastic research online. doi: 10.2417/spepro.005409. Available: (Last Accessed: May 2015)
  48. 48.
    Dietsche F, Thomann Y, Thomann R, Mülhaupt R (2000) “Translucent acrylic nanocomposites containing anisotropic laminated nanoparticles derived from intercalated layered silicates,” J Appl Polym Sci 75:396–405Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Becker O, Varley R, Simon G (2002) “Morphology, thermal relaxations and mechanical properties of layered silicate nanocomposites based upon high-functionality epoxy resins,” Polymer 43:4365–4373Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Crosky A, Kelly D, Li R, Legrand X, Huong N, Ujjin R (2006) “Improvement of bearing strength of laminated composites,” Compos Struct 76:260–271Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ramanathan T, Abdala AA, Stankovich S, Dikin DA, Herrera-Alonso M, Piner RD, Adamson DH, Schniepp HC, Chen X, Ruoff RS, Nguyen ST, Aksay IA, Prud’Homme RK, Brinson LC (2008) “Functionalized graphene sheets for polymer nanocomposites,” Nat Nanotechnol 3:327–331Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ramanathan T, Liu H, Brinson LC (2005) “Functionalized SWNT/polymer nanocomposites for dramatic property improvement,” J Polym Sci B Polym Phys 43:2269–2279Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rao Y, Pochan JM (2007) “Mechanics of Polymer−Clay Nanocomposites,” Macromolecules 40:290–296Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Dennis RV, Patil V, Andrews JL, Aldinger JP, Yadav GD, Banerjee S (2015) “Hybrid nanostructured coatings for corrosion protection of base metals: a sustainability perspective,” Mater Res Express 2:032001Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Schwenke K, Isa L, Cheung DL, Del Gado E (2014) “Conformations and Effective Interactions of Polymer-Coated Nanoparticles at Liquid Interfaces,” Langmuir 30:12578–12586Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Roldughin VI, Serenko OA, Getmanova EV, Novozhilova NA, Nikifirova GG, Buzin MI, Chvalun SN, Ozerin AN, Muzafarov AM (2015) “Effect of hybrid nanoparticles on glass transition temperature of polymer nanocomposites,” Polym Compos. doi: 10.1002/pc.23376
  57. 57.
    Santos L, Montiel A, Alvarado M (2008) Reactive block copolymers as additives for the preparation of silicate-polymer composites. US20080033092 A1Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Zeng QH, Yu AB, Lu GQ, Paul DR (2005) “Clay-based polymer nanocomposites: research and commercial development,” J Nanosci Nanotechnol 5:1574–1592Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lim SK, Kim JW, Chin I, Kwon YK, Choi HJ (2002) “Preparation and Interaction Characteristics of Organically Modified Montmorillonite Nanocomposite with Miscible Polymer Blend of Poly(Ethylene Oxide) and Poly(Methyl Methacrylate),” Chem Mater 14:1989–1994Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Weng C-J, Chang C-H, Yeh J-M (2012) “Polymer nanocomposites in corrosion control,” In: Saji VS, Cook R (eds) Corrosion protection and control using nanomaterials. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, pp 330–356Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kornmann X, Lindberg H, Berglund LA (2001) “Synthesis of epoxy–clay nanocomposites. Influence of the nature of the curing agent on structure,” Polymer 42:4493–4499Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rao JP, Geckeler KE (2011) “Polymer nanoparticles: Preparation techniques and size-control parameters,” Prog Polym Sci 36:887–913Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Vivekchand SRC, Govindaraj A, Rao CNR (2007) “Nanotubes and Nanowires: Recent Developments,” In: Rao CNR, Müller A, Cheetham AK (eds) Nanomaterials chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, pp 45–118Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Arrakhiz FZ, Elachaby M, Bouhfid R, Vaudreuil S, Essassi M, Qaiss A (2012) “Mechanical and thermal properties of polypropylene reinforced with Alfa fiber under different chemical treatment,” Mater Des 35:318–322Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Xin X, Xu G, Li H (2013) “Dispersion and Property Manipulation of Carbon Nanotubes by Self-Assemibles of Amphiphilic Molecules,” In: Suzuki S (ed) Physical and chemical properties of carbon nanotubes. InTech, Rijeka, CroatiaGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Samadzadeh M, Boura SH, Peikari M, Kasiriha SM, Ashrafi A (2010) “A review on self-healing coatings based on micro/nanocapsules,” Prog Org Coat 68:159–164Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wei H, Wang Y, Guo J, Shen NZ, Jiang D, Zhang X, Yan X, Zhu J, Wang Q, Shao L, Lin H, Wei S, Guo Z (2014) “Advanced micro/nanocapsules for self-healing smart anticorrosion coatings,” J Mater Chem A 3:469–480Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Shi X (2010) “On the Use of Nanotechnology to Manage Steel Corrosion,” Recent Pat Eng 4:44–50Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Zheludkevich ML, Shchukin DG, Yasakau KA, Möhwald H, Ferreira MGS (2007) “Anticorrosion Coatings with Self-Healing Effect Based on Nanocontainers Impregnated with Corrosion Inhibitor,” Chem Mater 19:402–411Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Snihirova D, Lamaka SV, Montemor MF (2012) “SMART” protective ability of water based epoxy coatings loaded with CaCO3 microbeads impregnated with corrosion inhibitors applied on AA2024 substrates,” Electrochim Acta 83:439–447Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Borisova D, Möhwald H, Shchukin DG (2013) “Influence of Embedded Nanocontainers on the Efficiency of Active Anticorrosive Coatings for Aluminum Alloys Part II: Influence of Nanocontainer Position,” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5:80–87Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Stankiewicz A, Szczygieł I, Szczygieł B (2013) “Self-healing coatings in anti-corrosion applications,” J Mater Sci 48:8041–8051Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Le Y, Hou P, Wang J, Chen J-F (2010) “Controlled release active antimicrobial corrosion coatings with Ag/SiO2 core–shell nanoparticles,” Mater Chem Phys 120:351–355Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Abdullayev E, Price R, Shchukin D, Lvov Y (2009) “Halloysite Tubes as Nanocontainers for Anticorrosion Coating with Benzotriazole,” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 1:1437–1443Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zheng Z, Huang X, Schenderlein M, Borisova D, Cao R, Möhwald H, Shchukin D (2013) “Self-Healing and Antifouling Multifunctional Coatings Based on pH and Sulfide Ion Sensitive Nanocontainers,” Adv Funct Mater 23:3307–3314Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Shchukin DG, Lamaka SV, Yasakau KA, Zheludkevich ML, Ferreira MGS, Möhwald H (2008) “Active Anticorrosion Coatings with Halloysite Nanocontainers,” J Phys Chem C 112:958–964Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Jafari AH, Hosseini SMA, Jamalizadeh E (2010) “Investigation of Smart Nanocapsules Containing Inhibitors for Corrosion Protection of Copper,” Electrochim Acta 55:9004–9009Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Khajouei A, Jamalizadeh E, Hosseini SMA (2015) “Corrosion protection of coatings doped with inhibitor-loaded nanocapsules,” Anti-Corros Methods Mater 62:88–94Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Yeganeh M, Saremi M, Rezaeyan H (2014) “Corrosion inhibition of steel using mesoporous silica nanocontainers incorporated in the polypyrrole,” Prog Org Coat 77:1428–1435Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Yeganeh M, Saremi M (2015) “Corrosion inhibition of magnesium using biocompatible Alkyd coatings incorporated by mesoporous silica nanocontainers,” Prog Org Coat 79:25–30Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Zheludkevich ML, Tedim J, Ferreira MGS (2012) “Smart” coatings for active corrosion protection based on multi-functional micro and nanocontainers,” Electrochim Acta 82:314–323Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Montemor MF, Snihirova DV, Taryba MG, Lamaka SV, Kartsonakis IA, Balaskas AC, Kordas GC, Tedim J, Kuznetsova A, Zheludkevich ML, Ferreira MGS (2012) “Evaluation of self-healing ability in protective coatings modified with combinations of layered double hydroxides and cerium molibdate nanocontainers filled with corrosion inhibitors,” Electrochim Acta 60:31–40Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Choi H, Kim KY, Park JM (2013) “Encapsulation of aliphatic amines into nanoparticles for self-healing corrosion protection of steel sheets,” Prog Org Coat 76:1316–1324Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Mostafaei A, Nasirpouri F (2014) “Epoxy/polyaniline–ZnO nanorods hybrid nanocomposite coatings: Synthesis, characterization and corrosion protection performance of conducting paints,” Prog Org Coat 77:146–159Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kartsonakis IA, Athanasopoulou E, Snihirova D, Martins B, Koklioti MA, Montemor MF, Kordas G, Charitidis CA (2014) “Multifunctional epoxy coatings combining a mixture of traps and inhibitor loaded nanocontainers for corrosion protection of AA2024-T3,” Corros Sci 85:147–159Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Yabuki A, Kawashima A, Fathona IW (2014) “Self-healing polymer coatings with cellulose nanofibers served as pathways for the release of a corrosion inhibitor,” Corros Sci 85:141–146Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Plawecka M, Snihirova D, Martins B, Szczepanowicz K, Warszynski P, Montemor MF (2014) “Self healing ability of inhibitor-containing nanocapsules loaded in epoxy coatings applied on aluminium 5083 and galvanneal substrates,” Electrochim Acta 140:282–293Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Chu D, Wang J, Han Y, Ma Q, Wang Z (2015) “High performance epoxy protective coatings incorporated with polyaniline nanowires using cardanol-based phenalkamine as the curing agent,” RSC Adv 5:11378–11384Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kopeć M, Szczepanowicz K, Mordarski G, Podgórna K, Socha RP, Nowak P, Warszyński P, Hack T (2015) “Self-healing epoxy coatings loaded with inhibitor-containing polyelectrolyte nanocapsules,” Prog Org Coat 84:97–106Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Dhawan A, Sharma V (2010) “Toxicity assessment of nanomaterials: methods and challenges,” Anal Bioanal Chem 398:589–605Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Campo EM, Larios E, Huynh C, Ananth M (2015) “Helium ion microscopy of electrospun CNT–polymer composites,” J Mater Res 30:130–140Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Fayyad EM, Almaadeed MA, Jones A, Abdullah AM (2014) “Evaluation Techniques for the Corrosion Resistance of Self-Healing Coatings,” Int J Electrochem Sci 9:4989–5011Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hamdy AS, Doench I, Möhwald H (2011) “Smart self-healing anti-corrosion vanadia coating for magnesium alloys,” Prog Org Coat 72:387–393Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Shchukin DG, Zheludkevich M, Yasakau K, Lamaka S, Ferreira MGS, Möhwald H (2006) “Layer-by-Layer Assembled Nanocontainers for Self-Healing Corrosion Protection,” Adv Mater 18:1672–1678Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Snihirova D, Liphardt L, Grundmeier G, Montemor F (2013) “Electrochemical study of the corrosion inhibition ability of “smart” coatings applied on AA2024,” J Solid State Electrochem 17:2183–2192Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA

Personalised recommendations