Advertisement

Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

  • Stefan K. BartaEmail author
  • Kieron Dunleavy
  • Nicolas Mounier
Chapter

Abstract

Systemic (or “non-CNS”) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma accounting for approximately 30–40 % of all new lymphoma diagnoses in HIV-negative patients and 30–80 % in HIV-infected patients. Both plasmablastic lymphoma and primary CNS lymphoma are considered variants of DLBCL, but will be discussed in detail in separate chapters (Chaps. 5, Plasmablastic Lymphoma; and Chap. 7, Primary CNS Lymphoma). While in the era before 1996, when no combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was available, the risk of developing an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) was up to 600-fold increased compared to immunocompetent patients; this risk has declined to <20-fold in the era of cART. In DLBCL in HIV-infected patients the severity of immunosuppression is the most important risk factor for developing disease. The median CD4 count at DLBCL diagnosis is typically around 200 cells/ml. Low CD4 nadir, the length of impaired immune function secondary to low CD4 counts, and length of time of HIV viremia, even at low levels, appear to be important risk factors for developing DLBCL.

Keywords

Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation Burkitt Lymphoma Plasmablastic Lymphoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Beral V, Peterman T, Berkelman R, et al. AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Lancet. 1991;337:805–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL, et al. WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. 4th ed. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2008.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Besson C, Goubar A, Gabarre J, et al. Changes in AIDS-related lymphoma since the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Blood. 2001;98:2339–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Raphael M, Gentilhomme O, Tulliez M, et al. Histopathologic features of high-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The French Study Group of Pathology for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1991;115:15–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Coté TR, Biggar RJ, Rosenberg PS, et al. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma among people with AIDS: incidence, presentation and public health burden. Int J Cancer. 1997;73:645–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bohlius J, Schmidlin K, Costagliola D, et al. Incidence and risk factors of HIV-related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy: a European multicohort study. Antivir Ther. 2009;14:1065–74.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    The Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration. The changing incidence of AIDS events in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:416–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gibson TM, Morton LM, Shiels MS, et al. Risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes in HIV-infected people during the HAART era: a population-based study. AIDS. 2014;28:2313–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Silverberg MJ, Chao C, Leyden WA, et al. HIV infection, immunodeficiency, viral replication, and the risk of cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20:2551–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Biggar RJ, Chaturvedi AK, Goedert JJ, et al. AIDS-related cancer and severity of immunosuppression in persons with AIDS. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99:962–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pluda JM, Yarchoan R, Jaffe ES, et al. Development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a cohort of patients with severe human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on long-term antiretroviral therapy. Ann Intern Med. 1990;113:276–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Engels EA, Pfeiffer RM, Landgren O, et al. Immunologic and virologic predictors of AIDS-related non-hodgkin lymphoma in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;54:78–84.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Guiguet M, Boué F, Cadranel J, et al. Effect of immunodeficiency, HIV viral load, and antiretroviral therapy on the risk of individual malignancies (FHDH-ANRS CO4): a prospective cohort study. Lancet Oncol. 2009;10:1152–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Barta SK, Xue X, Wang D, et al. Treatment factors affecting outcomes in HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphomas: a pooled analysis of 1546 patients. Blood. 2013;122:3251–62.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bower M, Fisher M, Hill T, et al. CD4 counts and the risk of systemic non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in individuals with HIV in the UK. Haematologica. 2009;94:875–80.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Achenbach CJ, Buchanan AL, Cole SR, et al. HIV viremia and incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in patients successfully treated with antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58(11):1599–606.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zoufaly A, Stellbrink HJ, Heiden MA, et al. Cumulative HIV viremia during highly active antiretroviral therapy is a strong predictor of AIDS-related lymphoma. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:79–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Clifford GM, Polesel J, Rickenbach M, et al. Cancer risk in the Swiss HIV cohort study: associations with immunodeficiency, smoking, and highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97:425–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Franceschi S, Lise M, Clifford GM, et al. Changing patterns of cancer incidence in the early- and late-HAART periods: the Swiss HIV cohort study. Br J Cancer. 2010;103:416–22.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Little RF, Dunleavy K. Update on the treatment of HIV-associated hematologic malignancies. ASH Educ Prog Book. 2013;2013:382–8.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Carbone A, Vaccher E, Gloghini A, et al. Diagnosis and management of lymphomas and other cancers in HIV-infected patients. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2014;11:223–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ometto L, Menin C, Masiero S, et al. Molecular profile of Epstein-Barr virus in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related lymphadenopathies and lymphomas. Blood. 1997;90:313–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hamilton-Dutoit SJ, Pallesen G, Karkov J, et al. Identification of EBV-DNA in tumour cells of AIDS-related lymphomas by in-situ hybridisation. Lancet. 1989;1:554–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Carbone A, Tirelli U, Gloghini A, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated systemic lymphomas may be subdivided into two main groups according to Epstein-Barr viral latent gene expression. J Clin Oncol. 1993;11:1674–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ambinder RF. Epstein-Barr virus associated lymphoproliferations in the AIDS setting. Eur J Cancer. 2001;37:1209–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cesarman E. Pathology of lymphoma in HIV. Curr Opin Oncol. 2013;25:487–94.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chadburn A, Abdul-Nabi AM, Teruya BS, et al. Lymphoid proliferations associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2013;137:360–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gabarre J, Raphael M, Lepage E, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus-related lymphoma: relation between clinical features and histologic subtypes. Am J Med. 2001;111:704–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hoffmann C, Tiemann M, Schrader C, et al. AIDS-related B-cell lymphoma (ARL): correlation of prognosis with differentiation profiles assessed by immunophenotyping. Blood. 2005;106:1762–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chadburn A, Chiu A, Lee JY, et al. Immunophenotypic analysis of AIDS-related diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and clinical implications in patients from AIDS malignancies consortium clinical trials 010 and 034. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:5039–48.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dunleavy K, Little RF, Pittaluga S, et al. The role of tumor histogenesis, FDG-PET, and short-course EPOCH with dose-dense rituximab (SC-EPOCH-RR) in HIV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2010;115:3017–24.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Xicoy B, Ribera J-M, Mate J-l, et al. Immunohistochemical expression profile and prognosis in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with or without human immunodeficiency virus infection. Leuk Lymphoma. 2010;51:2063–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Liapis K, Clear A, Owen A, et al. The microenvironment of AIDS-related diffuse large B-cell lymphoma provides insight into the pathophysiology and indicates possible therapeutic strategies. Blood. 2013;122:424–33.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Morton LM, Kim CJ, Weiss LM, et al. Molecular characteristics of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and -uninfected patients in the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy and pre-rituximab era. Leuk Lymphoma. 2014;55:551–7.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Little RF, Pittaluga S, Grant N, et al. Highly effective treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma with dose-adjusted EPOCH: impact of antiretroviral therapy suspension and tumor biology. Blood. 2003;101:4653–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kanungo A, Medeiros LJ, Abruzzo LV, et al. Lymphoid neoplasms associated with concurrent t(14;18) and 8q24/c-MYC translocation generally have a poor prognosis. Mod Pathol. 2006;19:25–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    van Imhoff GW, Boerma EJ, van der Holt B, et al. Prognostic impact of germinal center-associated proteins and chromosomal breakpoints in poor-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:4135–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Johnson NA, Slack GW, Savage KJ, et al. Concurrent expression of MYC and BCL2 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:3452–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Green TM, Young KH, Visco C, et al. Immunohistochemical double-hit score is a strong predictor of outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:3460–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gaidano G, Pasqualucci L, Capello D, et al. Aberrant somatic hypermutation in multiple subtypes of AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood. 2003;102:1833–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Levine AM. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma. Blood. 1992;80:8–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Matthews GV, Bower M, Mandalia S, et al. Changes in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Blood. 2000;96:2730–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Little RF, Gutierrez M, Jaffe ES, et al. HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma: incidence, presentation, and prognosis. JAMA. 2001;285:1880–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Levine AM, Seneviratne L, Espina BM, et al. Evolving characteristics of AIDS-related lymphoma. Blood. 2000;96:4084–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Coutinho R, Pria AD, Gandhi S, et al. HIV status does not impair the outcome of patients diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP in the cART era. AIDS. 2014;28:689–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Imrie KR, Sawka CA, Kutas G, et al. HIV-associated lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract: the university of Toronto AIDS-lymphoma study group experience. Leuk Lymphoma. 1995;16:343–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Beck PL, Gill MJ, Sutherland LR. HIV-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract. Am J Gastroenterol. 1996;91:2377–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Diamond C, Taylor TH, Aboumrad T, et al. Changes in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: incidence, presentation, treatment, and survival. Cancer. 2006;106:128–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Heise W, Arasteh K, Mostertz P, et al. Malignant gastrointestinal lymphomas in patients with AIDS. Digestion. 1997;58:218–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mhlanga JC, Durand D, Tsai HL, et al. Differentiation of HIV-associated lymphoma from HIV-associated reactive adenopathy using quantitative FDG PET and symmetry. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2014;41:596–604.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sathekge M, Maes A, Van de Wiele C. FDG-PET imaging in HIV infection and tuberculosis. Semin Nucl Med. 2013;43:349–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Navarro J, Ribera J, Oriol A, et al. International prognostic index is the best prognostic factor for survival in patients with AIDS-related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma treated with CHOP. A multivariate study of 46 patients. Haematologica. 1998;83:508–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rossi G, Donisi A, Casari S, et al. The International prognostic index can be used as a guide to treatment decisions regarding patients with human immunodeficiency virus-related systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer. 1999;86:2391–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lim ST, Karim R, Tulpule A, et al. Prognostic factors in HIV-related diffuse large-cell lymphoma: before versus after highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:8477–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Miralles P, Berenguer J, Ribera JM, et al. Prognosis of AIDS-related systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with chemotherapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy depends exclusively on tumor-related factors. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007;44:167–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mounier N, Spina M, Gabarre J, et al. AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma: final analysis of 485 patients treated with risk-adapted intensive chemotherapy [see comment]. Blood. 2006;107:3832–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bower M, Gazzard B, Mandalia S, et al. A prognostic index for systemic AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:265–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Barta SK, Samuel MS, Xue X, et al. Changes in the influence of lymphoma- and HIV-specific factors on outcomes in AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ann Oncol. 2015.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bohlius J, Schmidlin K, Costagliola D, et al. Prognosis of HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma in patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2009;23(15):2029–37.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Straus DJ, Huang J, Testa MA, et al. Prognostic factors in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: analysis of AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 142–low-dose versus standard-dose m-BACOD plus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. J Clin Oncol. 1998;16:3601–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Tedeschi R, Bortolin MT, Bidoli E, et al. Assessment of immunovirological features in HIV related non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients and their impact on outcome. J Clin Virol. 2012;53:297–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lim ST, Karim R, Nathwani BN, et al. AIDS-related Burkitt’s lymphoma versus diffuse large-cell lymphoma in the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and HAART eras: significant differences in survival with standard chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:4430–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bortolin MT, Zanussi S, Talamini R, et al. Predictive value of HIV type 1 DNA levels on overall survival in HIV-related lymphoma patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) plus autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010;26:245–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Long JL, Engels EA, Moore RD, et al. Incidence and outcomes of malignancy in the HAART era in an urban cohort of HIV-infected individuals. AIDS. 2008;22:489–96.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Levine AM, Noy A, Lee JY, et al. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone in AIDS-related lymphoma: AIDS malignancy consortium study 047. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:58–64.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Barta SK, Xue X, Wang D, et al. A new prognostic score for AIDS-related lymphomas in the rituximab-era. Haematologica. 2014;99:1731–7.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kaplan LD, Lee JY, Ambinder RF, et al. Rituximab does not improve clinical outcome in a randomized phase 3 trial of CHOP with or without rituximab in patients with HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma: AIDS-malignancies consortium trial 010. Blood. 2005;106:1538–43.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chao C, Silverberg MJ, Martinez-Maza O, et al. Epstein-Barr virus infection and expression of B-cell oncogenic markers in HIV-related diffuse large B-cell Lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:4702–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gopal S, Patel MR, Yanik EL, et al. Temporal trends in presentation and survival for HIV-associated lymphoma in the antiretroviral therapy era. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013;105:1221–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kaplan L, Kahn J, Crowe S, et al. Clinical and virologic effects of recombinant human granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients receiving chemotherapy for human immunodeficiency virus-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: results of a randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. 1991;9:929–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Newell M, Goldstein D, Milliken S, et al. Phase I/II trial of filgrastim (r-metHuG-CSF), CEOP chemotherapy and antiretroviral therapy in HIV-related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Ann Oncol. 1996;7:1029–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kaplan LD, Straus DJ, Testa MA, et al. Low-dose compared with standard-dose m-BACOD chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases AIDS Clinical Trials Group. N Engl J Med. 1997;336:1641–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kersten MJ, Verduyn TJ, Reiss P, et al. Treatment of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma with chemotherapy (CNOP) and r-hu-G-CSF: clinical outcome and effect on HIV-1 viral load. Ann Oncol. 1998;9:1135–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Vaccher E, Spina M, di Gennaro G, et al. Concomitant cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy plus highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-related, non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer. 2001;91:155–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Tirelli U, Errante D, Oksenhendler E, et al. Prospective study with combined low-dose chemotherapy and zidovudine in 37 patients with poor-prognosis AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ann Oncol. 1992;3:843–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sawka CA, Shepherd FA, Brandwein J, et al. Treatment of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma with a twelve week chemotherapy program. Leuk Lymphoma. 1992;8:213–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Remick S, McSharry J, Wolf B, et al. Novel oral combination chemotherapy in the treatment of intermediate- grade and high-grade AIDS-related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 1993;11:1691–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Levine AM, Wernz JC, Kaplan L, et al. Low-dose chemotherapy with central nervous system prophylaxis and zidovudine maintenance in AIDS-related lymphoma. A prospective multi-institutional trial. JAMA. 1991;266:84–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Levine AM, Tulpule A, Espina B, et al. Low dose methotrexate, bleomycin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dexamethasone with zalcitabine in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma. Effect on human immunodeficiency virus and serum interleukin-6 levels over time. Cancer. 1996;78:517–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gisselbrecht C, Oksenhendler E, Tirelli U, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus-related lymphoma treatment with intensive combination chemotherapy. French-Italian Cooperative Group. Am J Med. 1993;95:188–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gabarre J, Lepage E, Thyss A, et al. Chemotherapy combined with zidovudine and GM-CSF in human immunodeficiency virus-related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Ann Oncol. 1995;6:1025–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sparano J, Wiernik P, Hu X, et al. Pilot trial of infusional cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide plus didanosine and filgrastim in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 1996;14:3026–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Tosi P, Gherlinzoni F, Mazza P, et al. 3′-azido 3′-deoxythymidine + methotrexate as a novel antineoplastic combination in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-related non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Blood. 1997;89:419–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Weiss R, Huhn D, Mitrou P, et al. HIV-related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: CHOP induction therapy and interferon-alpha-2b/zidovudine maintenance therapy. Leuk Lymphoma. 1998;29:103–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Oksenhendler E, Gerard L, Dubreuil M-L, et al. Intensive chemotherapy (LNHIV-91 regimen) and G-CSF for HIV associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2000;39:87–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Remick SC, Sedransk N, Haase RF, et al. Oral combination chemotherapy in conjunction with filgrastim (G-CSF) in the treatment of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: evaluation of the role of G-CSF; quality-of-life analysis and long-term follow-up. Am J Hematol. 2001;66:178–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ratner L, Lee J, Tang S, et al. Chemotherapy for human immunodeficiency virus-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in combination with highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19:2171–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gastaldi R, Martino P, Gentile G, et al. High dose of idarubicin-based regimen for diffuse large cell AIDS-related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients: a pilot study. Haematologica. 2001;86:1051–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Tulpule A, Espina BM, Pedro Santabarbara AB, et al. Treatment of AIDS related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma with combination mitoguazone dihydrochloride and low dose CHOP chemotherapy: results of a phase II study. Invest New Drugs. 2004;22:63–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Levine AM, Tulpule A, Espina B, et al. Liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin in combination with standard agents (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone) in patients with newly diagnosed AIDS-related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: results of therapy and correlates of response. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:2662–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sparano JA, Lee S, Chen MG, et al. Phase II trial of infusional cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide in patients with HIV-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: an eastern cooperative oncology group trial (E1494). J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:1491–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Costello RT, Zerazhi H, Charbonnier A, et al. Intensive sequential chemotherapy with hematopoietic growth factor support for non-Hodgkin lymphoma in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Cancer. 2004;100:667–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sawka CA, Shepherd FA, Franssen E, et al. A prospective, non-randomised phase 1-2 trial of VACOP-B with filgrastim support for HIV-related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Biotechnol Annu Rev Elsevier. 2005;11:381–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Spina M, Jaeger U, Sparano JA, et al. Rituximab plus infusional cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide in HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma: pooled results from 3 phase 2 trials [see comment]. Blood. 2005;105:1891–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Navarro JT, Lloveras N, Ribera JM, et al. The prognosis of HIV-infected patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with chemotherapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy is similar to that of HIV-negative patients receiving chemotherapy. Haematologica. 2005;90:704–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Weiss R, Mitrou P, Arasteh K, et al. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma. Cancer. 2006;106:1560–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Boue F, Gabarre J, Gisselbrecht C, et al. Phase II trial of CHOP plus rituximab in patients with HIV-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:4123–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Combs S, Neil N, Aboulafia DM. Liposomal doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide and antiretroviral therapy for patients with AIDS-related lymphoma: a pilot study. Oncologist. 2006;11:666–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ribera JM, Oriol A, Morgades M, et al. Safety and efficacy of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, prednisone and rituximab in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: results of a phase II trial. Br J Haematol. 2008;140:411–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sparano JA, Lee JY, Kaplan LD, et al. Rituximab plus concurrent infusional EPOCH chemotherapy is highly effective in HIV-associated B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood. 2010;115:3008–16.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wilson WH, Grossbard ML, Pittaluga S, et al. Dose-adjusted EPOCH chemotherapy for untreated large B-cell lymphomas: a pharmacodynamic approach with high efficacy. Blood. 2002;99:2685–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Dunleavy K, Wilson WH. How I treat HIV-associated lymphoma. Blood. 2012;119:3245–55.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Zelenetz AD, Gordon LI, Wierda WG, et al. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, version 4.2014. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2014;12:1282–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Barta SK, Lee JY, Kaplan LD, et al. Pooled analysis of AIDS malignancy consortium trials evaluating rituximab plus CHOP or infusional EPOCH chemotherapy in HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer. 2012;118:3977–83.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Bower M, Palfreeman A, Alfa-Wali M, et al. British HIV association guidelines for HIV-associated malignancies 2014. HIV Med. 2014;15 Suppl 2:1–92.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Castillo JJ, Echenique IA. Rituximab in combination with chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a pooled analysis of 15 prospective studies. Am J Hematol. 2012;87:330–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Cruciani M, Gatti G, Vaccher E, et al. Pharmacokinetic interaction between chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and protease inhibitors in HIV-1-infected patients. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005;55:546–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Cheung MC, Hicks LK, Leitch HA. Excessive neurotoxicity with ABVD when combined with protease inhibitor‚ ÄìBased antiretroviral therapy in the treatment of AIDS-related Hodgkin lymphoma. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2010;10:E22–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Bower M, McCall-Peat N, Ryan N, et al. Protease inhibitors potentiate chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Blood. 2004;104:2943–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Miro JM, Manzardo C, Mussini C, et al. Survival outcomes and effect of early vs. deferred cART among HIV-infected patients diagnosed at the time of an AIDS-defining event: a cohort analysis. PLoS One. 2011;6:e26009.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Manzardo C, Esteve A, Ortega N, et al. Optimal timing for initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy in treatment-naive human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected individuals presenting with AIDS-defining diseases: the experience of the PISCIS Cohort. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;25:1469–0691. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2012.03991.x.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Shao H, Crump JA, Ramadhani HO, et al. Early versus delayed fixed dose combination abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine in patients with HIV and tuberculosis in Tanzania. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009;25:1277–85.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sinha S, Shekhar R, Singh G, et al. Early versus delayed initiation of antiretroviral therapy for Indian HIV-infected individuals with tuberculosis on antituberculosis treatment. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:168.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Tirelli U, Errante D, Spina M, et al. Second-line chemotherapy in human immunodeficiency virus-related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: evidence of activity of a combination of etoposide, mitoxantrone, and prednimustine in relapsed patients. Cancer. 1996;77:2127–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Levine AM, Tulpule A, Tessman D, et al. Mitoguazone therapy in patients with refractory or relapsed AIDS-related lymphoma: results from a multicenter phase II trial. J Clin Oncol. 1997;15:1094–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Bi J, Espina BM, Tulpule A, et al. High-dose cytosine-arabinoside and cisplatin regimens as salvage therapy for refractory or relapsed AIDS-related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001;28:416–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Spina M, Vaccher E, Juzbasic S, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma: activity of infusional cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide as second-line chemotherapy in 40 patients. Cancer. 2001;92:200–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Bayraktar UD, Ramos JC, Petrich A, et al. Outcome of patients with relapsed/refractory acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related lymphoma diagnosed 1999–2008 and treated with curative intent in the AIDS Malignancy Consortium. Leuk Lymphoma. 2012;53:2383–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Gisselbrecht C, Glass B, Mounier N, et al. Salvage regimens with autologous transplantation for relapsed large B-cell lymphoma in the rituximab era. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:4184–90.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Crump M, Kuruvilla J, Couban S, et al. Randomized comparison of gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin versus dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin chemotherapy before autologous stem-cell transplantation for relapsed and refractory aggressive lymphomas: NCIC-CTG LY.12. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32:3490–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Wilson WH, Gerecitano JF, Goy A, et al. The Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) inhibitor, ibrutinib (PCI-32765), has preferential activity in the ABC subtype of relapsed/refractory de novo Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL): interim results of a multicenter, open-label, phase 2 study. ASH Annu Meet Abstr. 2012;120:686.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan K. Barta
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kieron Dunleavy
    • 2
  • Nicolas Mounier
    • 3
  1. 1.Fox Chase Cancer Center, Temple BMT ProgramTemple University Health SystemPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Onco-HematologyArchet HospitalNiceFrance

Personalised recommendations