Second Malignancies

  • Josep-Maria RiberaEmail author


The incidence and spectrum of neoplasms among persons infected with HIV have risen with the increasing survival in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and have contributed as a significant cause of death in this population. The specific neoplasms developed include anal cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, head and neck carcinomas, and carcinomas of the skin, including penile and vulvar/vaginal cancer, among others.

Epidemiologic studies have shown that these neoplasms occur with higher frequency than in non-HIV-infected persons and, in general, tend to occur in patients who are younger than their HIV-negative counterparts. On the other hand, these cancers tend to show atypical pathology (e.g., poorly differentiated neoplasms and high tumor grade) and have a more aggressive behavior (e.g., higher probability of local progression and metastasis), resulting in poorer response to therapy and outcome.


High Tumor Grade Anal Cancer Neck Carcinoma Local Progression Growth Factor Support 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Supported in part by grants from the Red Temática de Investigación Cooperativa en Cáncer (RTICC, FEDER) (RD12/0036/0029); 2014 SGR225 (GRE) Generalitat de Catalunya; PI14/01971 from Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias, Instituto de Salud Carlos III; and Fundació Internacional Josep Carreras i Obra Social “la Caixa,” Spain.


  1. 1.
    Stebbing J, Duru O, Bower M. Non-AIDS-defining cancers. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2009;22:7–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pantanowitz L, Dezube BJ. Evolving spectrum and incidence of non-AIDS-defining malignancies. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2009;4:27–34.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ingle SM, May MT, Gill MJ, Mugavero MJ, Lewden C, Abgrall S, et al. Impact of risk factors for specific causes of death in the first and subsequent years of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59:287–97.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shiels MS, Pfeiffer RM, Gail MH, Hall HI, Li J, Chaturvedi AK, et al. Cancer burden in the HIV-infected population in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;103:753–62.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chao C, Leyden WA, Xu L, Horberg MA, Klein D, Towner WJ, et al. Exposure to antiretroviral therapy and risk of cancer in HIV-infected persons. AIDS. 2012;26:2223–31.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ribera JM, Morgades M, González-Barca E, Miralles P, López-Guillermo A, Gardella S, et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with HIV-related diffuse large B-cell lymphomas treated in a phase II study with rituximab and CHOP. Br J Haematol. 2012;157:637–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Xicoy B, Miralles P, Morgades M, Rubio R, Valencia ME, Ribera JM. Long-term follow-up of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and advanced stage Hodgkin’s lymphoma treated with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine. Haematologica. 2013;98:e85–6.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mani D, Aboulafia DM. Screening guidelines for non-AIDS defining cancers in HIV-infected individuals. Curr Opin Oncol. 2013;25:518–25.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vaccher E, Serraino D, Carbone A, De Paoli P. The evolving scenario of non-AIDS-defining cancers: challenges and opportunities of care. Oncologist. 2014;19:860–7.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Available at:
  11. 11.
    Smith TJ, Khatcheressian J, Lyman GH, Ozer H, Armitage JO, Balducci L, et al. 2006 recommendations for the use of white blood cell growth factors: an evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:3187–205.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rizzo JD, Brouwers M, Hurley P, Seidenfeld J, Arcasoy MO, Spivak JL, et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology/American Society of Hematology clinical practice guideline update on the use of epoetin and darbepoetin in adult patients with cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:4996–5009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rudek MA, Flexner C, Ambinder RF. Use of antineoplastic agents in patients with cancer who have HIV/AIDS. Lancet Oncol. 2011;12:905–12.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical Hematology DepartmentICO-Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol. Jose Carreras Research InstituteBadalonaSpain
  2. 2.Universitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations