HIV Infection and Myelodysplastic Syndrome/Acute Myeloid Leukemia
In this chapter, the authors briefly review the frequency, diagnosis, and treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. AML is relatively rare in HIV-infected individuals and had been described exclusively in adults until the report of a pediatric case in 2009. There have been no clinical trials to inform decision making in this group, but case series and retrospective analyses suggest that standard AML induction and consolidation algorithms are appropriate, particularly in those with well-controlled HIV viremia and adequate immune reserves. New areas of endeavor include high-dose chemotherapy coupled to autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Advances in the field of “HIV cure research” also offer the opportunity to eradicate not only AML but also HIV infection through the use of CCR-5-deficient hematopoietic stem cells.
KeywordsHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Acute Myeloid Leukemia Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Polycythemia Vera Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia
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