Relativity Between Greening and Performance

  • Y. H. Venus LunEmail author
  • Kee-hung Lai
  • Christina W. Y. Wong
  • T. C. E. Cheng
Part of the Shipping and Transport Logistics book series (STL)


Ships transport goods between geographical points and facilitate global trade activities (Lun and Browne in Int J Shipping Transp Logistics 1(2):103–18, 2009). Shipping, which involves the movement of cargo between different physical locations, is one of the world’s most internationalized industries that support global trade as a cost-effective means to move large volumes of cargo around the world (Lun and Marlow in Int J Shipping Transp Logistics 3(1):57–71, 2011). Shipping includes all activities that move cargo to, from, and between the key actors in the transport chain (Zhang et al. in Int J Shipping Transp Logistics 3(3):312–322, 2011). Shipping activities contribute to the specialization of industrial activities and allow for mass production (Wong et al. in Int J Shipping Transp Logistics 4(1):5–16, 2012). The importance of shipping has increased in the past centuries with industrialization, globalization, e-commerce, and the adoption of offshoring and outsourcing strategies.


Data Envelopment Analysis Environmental Performance Financial Performance Firm Performance Organizational Capability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. H. Venus Lun
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kee-hung Lai
    • 2
  • Christina W. Y. Wong
    • 3
  • T. C. E. Cheng
    • 4
  1. 1.Shipping Research CentreThe Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityHong KongChina
  2. 2.Shipping Research CentreThe Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityHong KongChina
  3. 3.Shipping Research CentreThe Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityHong KongChina
  4. 4.Shipping Research CentreThe Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityHong KongChina

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