Advertisement

The Making of Olive Landscapes in the South of Spain. A History of Continuous Expansion and Intensification

  • Juan Infante-Amate
  • Inmaculada Villa
  • Eduardo Aguilera
  • Eva Torremocha
  • Gloria Guzmán
  • Antonio Cid
  • Manuel González de MolinaEmail author
Part of the Environmental History book series (ENVHIS, volume 5)

Abstract

The objective of this work is to make an additional contribution that reveals new evidence about the nature of Mediterranean landscapes, their historical construction and the consequences of their transformation process. For this, we want to study the case of what is perhaps the most representative crop of the region: olive groves. The study area is the south of Spain which, for more than a century, has had the main concentration of olive trees in the Mediterranean and currently has the highest concentration of cultivated trees in the continent, with a continuous wood of more than 200 million trees. In the study period, between 1750 and 2010, we will outline the change in the social function of the crop, the management applied, the resulting landscapes and the socio-ecological consequences of the change. As we will see, historically, olive groves have not presented a constant image, but have changed from being a widespread crop, similar to exploitation systems such as dehesas and montados, to the industrial monoculture that they are today. The reconstruction of the geography of their expansion and the change in the morphology of olive grove landscapes and its causes, enable us to rebuild one of the most representative fragments of traditional Mediterranean landscapes, the olive groves of the south of Spain, and, with it, to participate in some of the debates that still persist about this matter.

Keywords

Olive Olive history Olive landscapes Mediterranean landscapes Environmental history Biocultural diversity 

References

  1. Agnoletti M (2007) The degradation of traditional landscape in a mountain area of Tuscany during the 19th and 20th centuries: implications for biodiversity and sustainable management. For Ecol Manage 249(1):5–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agnoletti M (2014) Rural landscape, nature conservation and culture: some notes on research trends and management approaches from a (southern) European perspective. Landscape Urban Plan 126:66–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aguilera E, Lassaletta L, Sanz-Cobeña A, Garnier J and Vallejo A (2013) The potential of organic fertilizers and water management to reduce N 2 O emissions in Mediterranean climate cropping systems. A review. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 164:32–52Google Scholar
  4. Alonso A (2011) El olivar ecológico. Junta de Andalucía & Mundi-Prensa, SevillaGoogle Scholar
  5. Antrop M (2005) Why landscapes of the past are important for the future. Landscape Urban Plan 70(1):21–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Antrop M (2006) Sustainable landscapes: contradiction, fiction or utopia? Landscape Urban Plan 75:187–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Attenborough D (1987) The first Eden: the Mediterranean world and man. Collins, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Beaufoy G (2001) EU policies for olive farming. Unsustainable on all counts, BirdLife Internacional-WWFGoogle Scholar
  9. Besnard G et al (2013) The complex history of the olive tree: from Late Quaternary diversification of Mediterranean lineages to primary domestication in the northern Levant. Proc R Soc B: Biol Sci 280(1756):2012–2833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bevilaqua P (1989) Clima, mercato e paesaggio agrario nel mezzogiorno, en Bevilaqua P (ed) Storia dell’agricultura italiana in etá contemporanea, Vol. I. Spazi e paesaggi, Marsilio Editori, Venecia, pp. 643–676Google Scholar
  11. Blondel J (2006) The ‘design’of Mediterranean landscapes: a millennial story of humans and ecological systems during the historic period. Hum Ecol 34(5):713–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. De Graaff J, Eppink LAAJ (1999) Olive oil production and soil conservation in southern Spain, in relation to EU subsidy policies. Land use policy 16(4):259–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Esponera P (1851) Del olivo y su cultivo. Memoria presentada a la Junta de Agricultura de la Provincia de Jaén, MadridGoogle Scholar
  14. Fischer-Kowalski M, Haberl H (eds) (2007) Socioecological transitions and global change: Trajectories of social metabolism and land use. Edward Elgar Publishing, CheltenhamGoogle Scholar
  15. García Brenes MD (2006) El olivar en Andalucía y el sistema de protección de la Unión Europea. Problemas del Desarrollo. Revista Latinoamericana de Economía 145:153–176Google Scholar
  16. García-Ruiz R, González de Molina M, Guzmán G, Soto D, Infante-Amate J (2012) Guide lines for constructing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium balance in historical agricultural systems. J Sustain Agric 36:1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Garrido L (2005) Olivar y cultura del aceite en la provincial de Jaén. Jaén, Instituto de Estudios GiennensesGoogle Scholar
  18. Gliessman SR (1990) Agroecology: researching the ecological basis for sustainable agriculture. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gómez JA (2008) Olivar sostenible. Prácticas para una producción sostenible de olivar en Andalucía. CórdobaGoogle Scholar
  20. Gómez JA, Infante-Amate J, de Molina MG, Vanwalleghem T, Taguas EV, Lorite I (2014) Olive cultivation, its impact on soil erosion and its progression into yield impacts in Southern Spain in the past as a key to a future of increasing climate uncertainty. Agriculture 4(2):170–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. González Bernáldez F (1981) Ecología y paisaje. BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  22. González de Molina M, Guzmán G (2006) Tras los pasos de la insustentabilidad: agricultura y medio ambiente en perspectiva histórica (siglos XVIII-XX) (Vol. 71). Icaria EditorialGoogle Scholar
  23. González de Molina M, y Toledo VM (2014) The Social Metabolism. A socio-ecological theory of historical change. New York, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  24. Grigg D (2001) Olive oil, the Mediterranean and the world. GeoJournal 53(2):163–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Grove AT, Rackham O (2003) The nature of Mediterranean Europe: an ecological history. Yale University Press, YaleGoogle Scholar
  26. Guzmán JR (2004) El palimpsesto cultivado. Historia de los paisajes del olivar andaluz, Sevilla, Consejería de Agricultura y Pesca, Junta de AndalucíaGoogle Scholar
  27. Guzmán JR (2005) Territorio y medio ambiente en el olivar andaluz. Consejería de Agricultura y PescaGoogle Scholar
  28. Guzmán Casado GI, y Alonso AM (2008) A comparison of energy use in conventional and organic olive oil production in Spain. Agricultural Systems, 98(3):167–176Google Scholar
  29. Guzmán G (2011) El olivar ecológico. Mundi Prensa, MadridGoogle Scholar
  30. Hermosín MC, Rodríguez-Linaza LC, Cornejo J, y Ordóñez-Fernández R (2009) Efecto de uso de agroquímicos en el olivar sobre la calidad de las aguas, en Gómez JA, Sostenibilidad de la producción de olivar en Andalucía, Sevilla, Consejería de Agricultura y Pesca, Sevilla, pp. 127–160Google Scholar
  31. Infante-Amate J (2011) Los temporeros del olivar. Una aproximación al estudio de las migraciones estacionales en el sur de España (siglos XVIII–XX). Revista de Demografía Histórica 29:87–118Google Scholar
  32. Infante-Amate J (2012a) Cuántos siglos de aceituna. Sobre el carácter de la expansión olivarera en el sur del España (1750–1900). Historia Agraria 58:39–72Google Scholar
  33. Infante-Amate J (2012b) The ecology and history of the Mediterranean olive grove. The S-Spanish great expansion: 18th–20th Centuries. Rural Hist 23–2:161–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Infante-Amate J (2013) ¿Quién levantó los olivos? La expansión olivarera decimonónica como estrategia campesina (1750–1930)”, Historia Social 76(II):25–44Google Scholar
  35. Infante-Amate J (2014) ¿Quién levantó los olivos? Historia de la especialización olivarera en el sur de España (ss. XVIII–XX), Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente, MadridGoogle Scholar
  36. Infante-Amate J, González de Molina M (2013) The socio-ecological transition on a crop scale. The case of olive orchards in S. Spain (1750–2000). Hum Ecol 41(6):961–969Google Scholar
  37. Infante-Amate J, Soto D, Cid A, Guzmán G, González de Molina M (2013) Nuevas interpretaciones sobre el papel del olivar en la evolución agraria española. La gran transformación del sector (1880–2010), XIV Congreso Internacional de Historia Agraria, Badajoz, 7–9 de noviembre de 2013Google Scholar
  38. Infante-Amate J, Soto D, Iriarte I, Aguilera E, Cid A, Guzmán G, García-Ruiz R, González de Molina M (2014) La producción de leña en España y sus implicaciones en la transición energética. Una serie a escala provincial (1900–2000), Documento de Trabajo de la Asociación Española de Historia EconómicaGoogle Scholar
  39. JCA (1891) Avance estadístico sobre el cultivo y producción del olivo, Junta Consultiva Agronómica, Madrid, Dirección General de Agricultura, Industria y ComercioGoogle Scholar
  40. JCA (1921) El aceite de oliva. Junta Consultiva Agronómica, Dirección General de Agricultura y Montes, MadridGoogle Scholar
  41. Junta de Andalucía JA (2002) El olivar andaluz, Sevilla, Junta de AndalucíaGoogle Scholar
  42. Kaniewski D, Van Campo E, Boiy T, Terral JF, Khadari B, Besnard G (2012) Primary domestication and early uses of the emblematic olive tree: palaeobotanical, historical and molecular evidence from the Middle East. Biol Rev 87(4):885–899CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Lepart J, Debussche M (1992) Human impact on landscape patterning: Mediterranean examples. In: Landscape boundaries. Springer, New York, pp 76–106Google Scholar
  44. Loumou A, Giourga C (2003) Olive groves: the life and identity of the Mediterranean’. Agric Hum Values 20(1):87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. MA (1970) Anuario de estadística agraria. 1970. Ministerio de Agricultura, MadridGoogle Scholar
  46. MA (1975) Inventario agronómico del olivar (varias provincias), Ministerio de Agricultura, MadridGoogle Scholar
  47. Makhzoumi JM (1997) The changing role of rural landscapes: olive and carob multi-use tree plantations in the semiarid Mediterranean. Landscape and Urban Planning, 37:115–122Google Scholar
  48. Marull J, Tello E, Wilcox PT, Coll F, Pons M, Warde P, Ollés A (2014) Recovering the landscape history behind a Mediterranean edge environment (The Congost Valley, Catalonia, 1854–2005): The importance of agroforestry systems in biological conservation. Appl Geogr 54:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mataix J, Barbancho FJ (2008) El aceite de oliva. Jaén, Universidad de Jaén, Alma del MediterráneoGoogle Scholar
  50. McNeill JR (2002) The mountains of the Mediterranean world. An environmental history. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  51. Morey A, y Molina de Dios R (2013) La pérdida de competitividad del aceite mallorquín y su pervivencia como cultivo marginal (1860-1960). XIV Congreso Internacional de Historia Agraria, Badajoz, 7–9 de noviembre de 2013Google Scholar
  52. Naredo JM (1981) La incidencia del « estraperlo » en la economía de las grandes fincas del Sur. Agricultura y Sociedad 19:81–129Google Scholar
  53. Naredo JM (1983) La crisis del olivar como cultivo biológico tradicional. Agricultura y Sociedad, 26:167–277Google Scholar
  54. Parcerisas L, Marull J, Pino J, Tello E, Coll F, Basnou C (2012) Land use changes, landscape ecology and their socioeconomic driving forces in the Spanish Mediterranean coast (El Maresme County, 1850–2005). Environ Sci Policy 23:120–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pelletier N, Audsley E, Brodt S, Garnett T, Henriksson P, Kendall A, Kramer KJ, Murphy D, Nemecek T and Troell M (2011) Energy intensity of agriculture and food systems. Annu Rev Environ Resour 36:223–246Google Scholar
  56. Petanidou T, Kizos T, Soulakellis N (2008) Socioeconomic dimensions of changes in the agricultural landscape of the Mediterranean basin: a case study of the abandonment of cultivation terraces on Nisyros Island, Greece. Environ Manage 41(2):250–266CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Ramón-Muñoz R (2000) Specialization in the international market for olive oil before World War II, In: Pamuk S, Williamson JG (eds) The Mediterranean response to globalization before 1950. Routledge, London, pp 159–198Google Scholar
  58. Ramón-Muñoz R (2007) La producción y el comercio de aceite de oliva en los países del Mediterráneo (1850–1938): competencia y especialización”. Mediterráneo Económico 7:329–354Google Scholar
  59. Remesal J (1998) Baetican olive oil and de Roman economy. In: Keay S (ed) The archaeology of early Roman Baetica, Rhode Island, Portsmouth, pp 183–199Google Scholar
  60. Rodríguez J (1924) Actas del VII Congreso Internacional e Oleicultura, Sevilla, diciembre, Edición de Sucesores de Rivadeneyra, Madrid, 5–9Google Scholar
  61. Sauer C (1925) The morphology of landscape. Publications in Geography 2, Universityof CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  62. Scheidel A, Krausmann F (2011) Diet, trade and land use: a socio-ecological analysis of the transformation of the olive oil system. Land Use Policy 28:47–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Serra M (1878) Elementos de agricultura, JaénGoogle Scholar
  64. Tió C (1982) La política de aceites comestibles en la España del siglo XX. Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación, MadridGoogle Scholar
  65. Vanwalleghem T, Infante-Amate J, González de Molina M, Dy Soto, Gómez JA (2011) Quantifying the effect of historical soil management on soil erosion rates in olive orchards over the last 250 years. Agric Ecosyst Environ 142:341–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zambrana JF (1984) El aceite de oliva y su dependencia del mercado internacional de grasas vegetales. Un análisis histórico 1861–1935. Agricultura y Sociedad 33:159–196Google Scholar
  67. Zambrana JF (1987) Crisis y modernización del olivar. Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación, MadridGoogle Scholar
  68. Zambrana JF (2006) El sector primario andaluz en el siglo XX. Instituto de Estadística de Andalucía, SevillaGoogle Scholar
  69. Zohary D, Hopf M (1994) Domestication of plants in the Old World, 2nd edn. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juan Infante-Amate
    • 1
  • Inmaculada Villa
    • 1
  • Eduardo Aguilera
    • 1
  • Eva Torremocha
    • 1
  • Gloria Guzmán
    • 1
  • Antonio Cid
    • 1
  • Manuel González de Molina
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Agro-ecosystems History LaboratoryUniversity Pablo de OlavideSevilleSpain

Personalised recommendations