Advertisement

A Comparative Study of Two Mediterranean Transhumant Systems and the Biocultural Diversity Associated with Them

  • Pablo Domínguez
Chapter
Part of the Environmental History book series (ENVHIS, volume 5)

Abstract

The alliance between the natural and social sciences has proven to be a successful analytical approach to understand and conserve ecosystems worldwide, while seeing humans as key agents within these (1971 Man and the Biosphere Programme, 1972 Stockholm Declaration, 1992 Rio Conference). In this context, authors from various areas of expertise have stressed the importance of recognizing the inextricable link between biological and cultural diversity and the need to raise awareness of these interactions for global sustainability. Despite scientific research repeatedly insisting on the importance of such a link, there remains a gap calling to highlight the concrete ways in which this diversity of long-held biocultural relations manifests and is generated. In fact, many of the works demonstrating the aforementioned bond are focused on the bioecological consequences of human diversity. At the same time, when they introduce a more sociocultural focus, they most often make linguistic indexes, their main measure for culture and/or use quantitative and macro-geographical approaches. In this sense, the general trend of this type of works, although always valuable, seems somewhat reductionist or incomplete. A less hard science and more detailed ethnographic-humanist analysis of this diversity and its groundings are still lacking. In order to address the exposed problem, I will present my preliminary works comparing agro-pastoral transhumant systems of the High Atlas of Marrakech and the Central Spanish Pyrenees. The ultimate goal is to push for an increasingly holistic approach to biocultural analysis including the humanities to a greater extent, and a broader spectrum of the social sciences.

Keywords

Biocultural diversity Agropastoralism Transhumance Commons Pyrenees High atlas 

References

  1. Alaoui S (2009) Les pelouses humides dans le haut Atlas: Biodiversité végétale, dynamique spatiale et pratiques de gestion coutumière. Dissertation, Université Cadi AyyadGoogle Scholar
  2. Almagro M (1942) La Cultura megalítica en el Alto Aragón. Ampurias 4:155–169Google Scholar
  3. Auclair L, Al-Ifriqui M (2005) Les agdals du Haut Atlas marocain. Enjeux d’une recherche pluridisciplinaire. Cahiers de Recherche du Centre Jacques Berque 3:60–79Google Scholar
  4. Auclair L, Al-Ifriqui M (ed) (2012) Agdals. Society and resource management in the Moroccan Atlas. Royal Institute of Amazigh Culture—Institute of Research for Development, RabatGoogle Scholar
  5. Barbera G, Cullotta S (2012) An inventory approach to the assessment of main traditional landscapes in Sicily (Central Mediterranean Basin). Landscape Res. doi: 10.1080/01426397.2011.607925 Google Scholar
  6. Bellaoui A (1989) Les pays de l’Adrar-n-Dern. Etude géographique du Haut Atlas de Marrakech. Dissertation, Université de ToursGoogle Scholar
  7. Beltrán O (1993) Es Aranesi: adaptació a l’entorn i organització social al Pirineu central. Dissertation, Universitat de BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  8. Braudel F (1949) La Méditerranée et le Monde Méditerranéen a l’époque de Philippe II. A. Colin, ParisGoogle Scholar
  9. Chassany JP (ed) (2008) Les paysages culturels de l’agropastoralisme, méditerranéen edn. Conseil général de l’Aveyron, MeyrueisGoogle Scholar
  10. Clot A (1974) El arte gráfico prehistórico en los Altos Pirineos. MUNIBE (Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales ARANZADI) 1–2:57–62Google Scholar
  11. Dominguez P (2010) Approche multidisciplinaire d’un système traditionnel de gestion des ressources naturelles communautaires: L’agdal pastoral du Yagur (Haut Atlas marocain). Dissertation, École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales/Universitat Autònoma de BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  12. Dominguez P, Hammi S, (2010) L’agdal du Yagur, écologie et pastoralisme. In: Fernandez K (ed) Ecología y Pastoralismo, Koldo Michelena, San Sebastián, p 34–56Google Scholar
  13. Dominguez P, Bourbouze A, Demay S, Genin D, Kosoy N (2012) Culturally mediated provision of ecosystem services: the agdal of Yagur. Environ Values 21:277–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fillat F, García-González R, Gómez D (1995) Importancia de la ganadería en la conservación del paisaje pirenaico. Quercus 107:24–26Google Scholar
  15. Fillat F, García-González R, Gómez D, Reiné R (eds) (2007) Pastos del Pirineo. CSIC, MadridGoogle Scholar
  16. Gellner E (1969) Saints of the Atlas. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Gellner E (1981) Muslim society. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  18. Gómez-Baggethun E, Mingorría S, Reyes-García V, Calvet L, Montes C (2010) Traditional ecological knowledge trends in the transition to a market economy: empirical study in the Donana natural areas. Conserv Biol 24(3):721–729CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hammi S, Al-Ifriqui M, Simonneaux V, Auclair L, Montes N (2007) Évolution des recouvrements forestiers et de l’occupation des sols entre 1964 et 2002 dans la haute vallée des Ait Bouguemez (Haut Atlas Central, Maroc). Sécheresse 18(4):271–277Google Scholar
  20. Hardin G (1968) The tragedy of the commons. The population problem has no technical solution; it requires a fundamental extension in morality. Science 162(859):1243–1248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Jiménez J (2006) La imagen de los espacios de alta montaña en la prehistoria: El caso de los Pirineos Catalanes Occidentales. Dissertation, Unversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  22. Joint programme on the links between biological and cultural diversity. 2010Google Scholar
  23. Loh J, Harmon D (2005) A global index of biocultural diversity. Ecol Ind 5(3):231–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. López JD (2010) Las fiestas de la primavera: bienvenida a los pastores trashumantes. In: Vidal P, Castán JL (ed) Transhumancia en el Mediterráneo, Ceddar, ZaragozaGoogle Scholar
  25. MacDonald D, Crabtree JR, Wiesinger G, Dax T, Stamou N, Fleury P, Gutierrez-Lazpita J, Gibon A (2000) Agricultural abandonment in mountain areas of Europe: environmental consequences and policy response. J Environ Manage 59:47–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Maffi L (2005) Linguistic, cultural, and biological diversity. Annu Rev Anthropol 29:599–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mahdi M (1999) Pasteurs de l’Atlas. Production pastorale, droit et rituel, Ed. Fondation Konrad Adenauer, CasablancaGoogle Scholar
  28. Maluquer J (1987) La població prehistórica a la Vall de Serradell. Collegats 1:31–44Google Scholar
  29. Mauss M (2012 [1925]) Essai sur le don. Forme et raison de l’échange dans les sociétés archaïques. PUF, ParisGoogle Scholar
  30. Mazzucco N, Gassiot E, Rodríguez D, García D, Obea L (2012) Les primeres comunitats ramaderes de la Vall de Sant Nicolau (5.000—2.300 CalANE). In: Aniz MM (ed.) IX Jornades sobre Recerca al Parc Nacional d’Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici, Ed. Generalitat de Catalunya & Parc Nacional d’Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici, Lleida, pp 221–233Google Scholar
  31. Mcneil JR (2003) The mountains of the Mediterranean world. An environmental history. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  32. Mittermeier R (2004) Hotspots revisited: Earth’s biologically richest and most endangered terrestrial ecoregions. Cemex, MexicoGoogle Scholar
  33. Nadal E, Igleias J, Estrada F (2010) Generalitat de Catalunya. Departament de Cultura, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  34. Pallaruelo S (1988) Pastores del Pirineo. Ministerio de Cultura, MadridGoogle Scholar
  35. Pascon P (1983) Le Haouz de Marrakch. CURS-CNRS-INAV, RabatGoogle Scholar
  36. Rasse M (2008) La diffusion du Néolithique en Europe (7000–5000 av. J.-C.) et sa représentation cartographique. Mappemonde. http://mappemonde.mgm.fr/num18/articles/art08205.pdf. Accessed 27 Jan 2015
  37. Rodrigue A (1999) L’art rupestre du Haut Atlas marocain. L’Harmattan, ParisGoogle Scholar
  38. Sellier E (2004) L’agdal du Yagour. Territorialités au pluriel pour la protection de la nature dans le Haut Atlas de Marrakech. Dissertation, Université de ProvenceGoogle Scholar
  39. Simoneau A (1967) Les gravures du Haut Atlas de Marrakech. Revue de Géographie du Maroc 11:67–76Google Scholar
  40. Sirami C, Nespoulous A, Cheylan JP, Martya P, Hvenegaarda GT, Geniezh P, Schatza B, Martin JL (2010) Long term social and ecological dynamics of a Mediterranean landscape: impacts on biodiversity. Landscape and Urban Plan 96:214–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Stepp R (2005) Mountains and biocultural diversity. Mt Res Dev 25(3):223–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Stoate C, Boatman ND, Borralho RJ, Rio Carvalho C, de Snoo GR, Eden P (2001) Ecological impacts of arable intensification in Europe. J Environ Manage 63:337–365CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Sutherland WJ (2003) Parallel extinction risk and global distribution of languages and species. Nature 423:276–279CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Uhel R (coord) (2006). Urban sprawl in Europe: the ignored challenge. EAA Report 10(2):56Google Scholar
  45. Vidal P, Castán JL (eds) (2010) Transhumancia en el, Mediterráneo edn. Ceddar, ZaragozaGoogle Scholar
  46. Villa J (1988) Una reflexión sobre la fiesta, el rito y la danza en las Comunidades Pirenaicas. Revista El Gurrión 32:8–12Google Scholar
  47. Zent S (2001) Acculturation and ethnobotanical knowledge loss among the Piaroa of Venezuela: demonstration of a quantitative method for the empirical study of traditional ecological knowledge change. In: Maffi L (ed) On Biocultural diversity: linking language, knowledge and the environment. Smithsonian Institution Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Socio-Ecological Systems in the Globalization (LASEG)Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès)Spain
  2. 2.Departament de Antropologia Cultural i Història d’Amèrica i ÀfricaUniversitat de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations