Advertisement

The Nexus Between Landscape Elements and Traditional Practices for Cultural Landscape Management

  • Mateja Šmid HribarEmail author
  • Mimi Urbanc
Part of the Environmental History book series (ENVHIS, volume 5)

Abstract

Landscape diversity consisted of heterogeneous landscape elements is largely dependent on human activities such as traditional practices and knowledge related to land use which could be recognized as a contribution to cultural diversity. Losing traditional practices may result in impoverishing of landscape and biological diversity. We present cases illustrating connections between certain landscape elements and traditional practices typical for the cultural landscape of Ljubljansko barje (Ljubljana Marshes) in Slovenia. The study was carried out on the selected case study sites during 2012–2013 using study visits and interviews with locals. The aim of identifying these connections was to foster synergies between management of cultural landscape, traditional practices and modern way of living. However, against expectations, the study revealed that in the Ljubljansko barje area not many such practices and knowledge remain. The most useful practices that help to sustain extensive meadows and tall-herb communities are horse breeding and late mowing, and the local knowledge concerning agricultural and building land safe against floods. Moreover, we found important the fact that the first ‘victims’ of modern farming are particularly those landscape elements that are the result of a considerably lower level of technological development.

Keywords

Landscape element Traditional practices Diversity Cultural landscape Slovenia Biocultural diversity 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This study was conducted as part of PhD studies of Mateja Šmid Hribar, under mentorship of Mimi Urbanc, PhD, and Valentina Brečko Grubar, PhD. We also gratefully acknowledge the help of local people and experts who, by sharing their knowledge, made this study possible.

References

  1. Agenda 21 (1992) United Nations, Rio de Janeiro. http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/Agenda21.pdf Accessed 3 Oct 2014
  2. Agnoletti M (2013) Valorising the European rural landscape: the case of the Italian national register of historical rural landscapes. In: Rotherham ID (ed) Cultural severance and the environment. Springer, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. Antrop M (2005) Why landscapes of the past are important for the future. Landscape Urban Plan 70:21–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Batello C, Avanzato D, Akparov Z, Kartvelishvili T, Melikyan A (2010) Gardens of biodiversity. Conservation of genetic resources and their use in traditional food production systems by small farmers of the Southern Caucasus. http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/i1687e/i1687e.pdf Accessed 10 Oct 2014
  5. Berkes F, Folke C, Gadgil M (1995) Traditional ecological knowledge, biodiversity, resilience and sustainability. In: Perrings CA, Mäler KG, Folke C, Jansson BO, Holling CS (eds) Biodiversity conservation. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  6. Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003) UNESCO, Paris. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001325/132540e.pdf Accessed 14 Nov 2012
  7. Diacon-Bolli J, Dalang T, Holderegger R, Bürgi M (2012) Heterogeneity fosters biodiversity: linking history and ecology of dry calcareous grasslands. Basic Appl Ecol 13:641–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eyssartier C, Ladio AH, Lozada M (2013) Traditional horticultural and gathering practices in two semi-rural populations of Northwestern Patagonia. J Arid Environ 97:18–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. FAO and Traditional Knowledge: The Linkages with Sustainability, Food Security and Climate Change Impacts (2009) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. http://www.fao.org/docrep/011/i0841e/i0841e00.htm. Accessed 14 Oct 2014
  10. FAO (2013) Advancing Agroforestry on the Policy Agenda: A guide for decision-makers, by Buttoud G, in collaboration with Ajayi O, Detlefsen G, Place F, Torquebiau E. Agroforestry Working Paper no. 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO, Rome. http://www.fao.org/docrep/017/i3182e/i3182e00.pdf. Accessed 14 Oct 2014
  11. Florence Declaration on the Links Between Biological and Cultural Diversity (2014) http://landscapeunifi.it/images/pdf/UNESCO-CBD_JP_Florence_Declaration.pdf
  12. Hoberg J, Oteros-Rozas E, Plieninger T (2012) Traditional ecological knowledge in Europe: status quo and missing links of empirical evidence. SULiNews 2 https://www.iucn.org/about/union/commissions/sustainable_use_and_livelihoods_specialist_group/sulinews/issue_2/sn2_tek/. Accessed 21 Oct 2014
  13. Intangible Heritage (2014) http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/?pg=56. Accessed 14 Oct 2014
  14. International Partnership for the Satoyama Initiative (IPSI) (2014) http://satoyama-initiative.org/ Accessed 25 October 2014
  15. Jančar T (2013) Mowing in Ljubljansko barje. (personal correspondance)Google Scholar
  16. Miličić V, Perpar A, Kramarič F, Udovč A (2011) Analiza stanja kmetijstva na območju Krajinskega parka Ljubljansko barje. Končno poročilo. Univerza v Ljubljani, Biotheniška Fakulteta, Ljubljana. http://www.ljubljanskobarje.si/uploads/datoteke/KPLB_KP_JUL2011_13MB.pdf. Accessed 10 July 2014
  17. Oteros-Rozas E, Ontillera-Sánchez R, Sanosa P, Gómez-Baggethun E, Reyes-García V, González JA (2013) Traditional ecological knowledge among transhumant pastoralists in Mediterranean Spain. Ecol Soc 18(3):33. doi: 10.5751/ES-05597-180333 Google Scholar
  18. Paris declaration on the Satoyama Initiative (2010). http://satoyama-initiative.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Paris_Declaration_EN_april2010_revised03_low.pdf. Accessed 20 Oct 2014
  19. Rotherham ID (2013) Cultural landscapes and problems associated with the loss of tradition and custom: an introduction and overiew. In: Rotherham ID (ed) Cultural severance and the environment. Springer, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rules on the Registry of Types of Heritage and Protection Guidelines. (2010) Uradni list RS 102/2010, LjubljanaGoogle Scholar
  21. Takeuchi K (2014) Revitalizing Socio-ecological production landscapes and seascapes: toward creating resilient and sustainable societies. The Satoyama initiative regional workshop in Florence, 27–29 May 2014 (Keynote speech). https://satoyama-initiative.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Keynote-1-Takeuch.pdf. Accessed 20 Oct 2014
  22. The Convention on Biological Diversity (1992) United Nations, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  23. Van der Stege C, Vogl-lukasser B, Vogl CR (2012) The role of homegardens in strengthening social–ecological resilience: case studies from Cuba and Austria. In: Plieninger T, Bieling C (eds) Resilience and the cultural landscape: understanding and managing change in human-shaped environments. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  24. Whyte ID (2002) Landscape and history since 1500. Reaktion BooksGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Anton Melik Geographical InstituteScientific Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and ArtsLjubljanaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations